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FIN437 Vicentiu Covrig 1 International Portfolio Investment (chapter 15 in Eun and Resnick)

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Presentation on theme: "FIN437 Vicentiu Covrig 1 International Portfolio Investment (chapter 15 in Eun and Resnick)"— Presentation transcript:

1 FIN437 Vicentiu Covrig 1 International Portfolio Investment (chapter 15 in Eun and Resnick)

2 FIN437 Vicentiu Covrig 2 Developed vs Emerging Markets Factors that are used to classify the world’s financial markets in developed and emerging markets: - the size and scope of the equity, fixed income and derivatives markets - the sophistication of the local market professionals - liquidity and transaction costs - quality and quantity of financial information - financial regulations, business laws, ethics, investor protection

3 FIN437 Vicentiu Covrig 3 Market Capitalization Almost 90% of the total market capitalization of the world’s equity markets is accounted for by the market capitalization of the developed world The other 10% is accounted for by the market capitalization of developing countries in “emerging markets”. - Latin America - Asia - Eastern Europe - Mideast/Africa

4 FIN437 Vicentiu Covrig 4 Risks of investing in international markets sovereign (political) risk - Sovereign governments have the right to regulate the movement of goods, capital, and people across their borders - in general, financial managers and investors incorporate a political risk premium when foreign activities are being evaluated - Ex: ethnic strife in Indonesia; currency controls in Malayasia; expropriation in Africa and Central America; changes in taxes and regulations;

5 FIN437 Vicentiu Covrig 5 Risks of investing in international markets liquidity risk: refers to how quickly an asset can be sold without a major price concession - The equity markets of the developed world tend to be much more liquid than emerging markets - Emerging markets have limited investability

6 FIN437 Vicentiu Covrig 6 Risks of investing in international markets  Information risk: most investors prefer to invest in assets that are more familiar with - foreign language - limited access to information - lack of disclosure -unfamiliar accounting system

7 FIN437 Vicentiu Covrig 7 Risks of investing in international markets Foreign Exchange Risk - Foreign operations are conducted in foreign currencies. - When firms and individuals are engaged in cross-border transactions they are exposed to foreign exchange (FX) risk. - The foreign currency profits, costs, revenues in dollar terms depends on exchange rate movements. - FX risk affects the cost of capital and the capital structure of a MNC firm

8 FIN437 Vicentiu Covrig 8 International Correlation Structure and Diversification Correlations between countries are not stable through time Security returns are much less correlated across countries than within a country.

9 FIN437 Vicentiu Covrig 9 The Optimal International Portfolio OIP 1.53 4.2% UK US CN FR JP GM

10 FIN437 Vicentiu Covrig 10 Effects of Changes in the Exchange Rate The realized dollar return for a U.S. resident investing in a foreign market is given by R i$ = (1 + R i )(1 + e i ) – 1 = R i + e i + R i e i Where R i is the local currency return in the i th market e i is the rate of change in the exchange rate between the local currency and the dollar

11 FIN437 Vicentiu Covrig 11 Effects of Changes in the Exchange Rate For example, if a U.S. resident just sold shares in a British firm that had a 15% return (in pounds) during a period when the pound depreciated 5%, his dollar return is 9.25%: Ri$ = (1 +.15)(1 –0.05) – 1 = 0.925 =.15 + -.05 +.15×(-.05) =0.0925

12 FIN437 Vicentiu Covrig 12 International Diversification through International Mutual Funds A U.S. investor can easily achieve international diversification by investing in a U.S.-based international mutual fund. The advantages include: 1. Savings on transaction and information costs. 2. Circumvention of legal and institutional barriers to direct portfolio investments abroad. 3. Professional management and record keeping.

13 FIN437 Vicentiu Covrig 13 International Diversification through Country Funds Recently, country funds have emerged as one of the most popular means of international investment. A country fund invests exclusively in the stocks of a single country. This allows investors to: 1. Speculate in a single foreign market with minimum cost. 2. Construct their own personal international portfolios. 3. Diversify into emerging markets that are otherwise practically inaccessible. ETFs (Exchange Traded Funds)/ World Equity Benchmark Shares (WEBS or iShares) - Country-specific baskets of stocks designed to replicate the country indexes

14 FIN437 Vicentiu Covrig 14 Trading in International Equities  During the 1980s world capital markets began a trend toward greater global integration Diversification, reduced regulation, improvements in computer and communications technology, increased demand from MNCs for global issuance. Cross-Listing refers to a firm having its equity shares listed on one or more foreign exchanges. Foreign stocks often trade on U.S. exchanges as ADRs. It is a receipt that represents the number of foreign shares that are deposited at a U.S. bank. The bank serves as a transfer agent for the ADRs

15 FIN437 Vicentiu Covrig 15 American Depository Receipts There are many advantages to trading ADRs as opposed to direct investment in the company’s shares: - ADRs are denominated in U.S. dollars, trade on U.S. exchanges and can be bought through any broker. - Dividends are paid in U.S. dollars. - Most underlying stocks are bearer securities, the ADRs are registered.

16 FIN437 Vicentiu Covrig 16 Why Home Bias in Portfolio Holdings? Home bias refers to the extent to which portfolio investments are concentrated in domestic equities. Explanations for home bias:

17 FIN437 Vicentiu Covrig 17 -discuss the characteristics that differentiate the developed from emerging markets - discuss the following risks of investing in international markets: sovereign, liquidity, foreign exchange, information - what are the benefits and risks of investing internationally - know how to calculate the dollar return of a foreign investment (see slides 10 and 11) - discuss how an investor can diversify internationally through mutual funds, ETFs, country funds and ADRs - explain what is an ADR and why investors invest in them - what is home bias and factors that affect it - End of chapter recommended questions: 1, 2, 5, 10, 11 - End of chapter recommended problems: 1, 4 Learning outcomes

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