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Department of Physics and Applied Physics 95.141, F2010, Lecture 10 Physics I 95.141 LECTURE 10 10/12/10

Department of Physics and Applied Physics 95.141, F2010, Lecture 10 Exam Prep Problem (Conical Pendulum) A mass (m=2kg) suspended on a cord ( l =1m ) revolves in a circle of radius r. (θ=30º) –A) (10pts) Draw a free body diagram for the mass, labeling your coordinate system –B) (5pts) What is the Tension in the cord? –C) (5pts) What is the acceleration of the ball, and in what direction? –D) (5pts) What is the tangential velocity of the ball?

Department of Physics and Applied Physics 95.141, F2010, Lecture 10 Exam Prep Problem (Conical Pendulum) A mass (m=2kg) suspended on a cord ( l =1m ) revolves in a circle of radius r. (θ=30º) –A) (10pts) Draw a free body diagram for the mass, labeling your coordinate system

Department of Physics and Applied Physics 95.141, F2010, Lecture 10 Exam Prep Problem (Conical Pendulum) A mass (m=2kg) suspended on a cord ( l =1m ) revolves in a circle of radius r. (θ=30º) –B) (5pts) What is the tension in the cord?

Department of Physics and Applied Physics 95.141, F2010, Lecture 10 Exam Prep Problem (Conical Pendulum) A small mass (m) suspended on a cord ( l =1m ) revolves in a circle of radius r. (θ=30º) –C) (5pts) What is the acceleration of the ball, and in what direction?

Department of Physics and Applied Physics 95.141, F2010, Lecture 10 Exam Prep Problem (Conical Pendulum) A small mass (m) suspended on a cord ( l =1m ) revolves in a circle of radius r. (θ=30º) –D) (5pts) What is the tangential velocity of the ball?

Department of Physics and Applied Physics 95.141, F2010, Lecture 10 Outline Highway curves (circular motion) Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation Weightlessness Kepler’s Laws What do we know? –Units –Kinematic equations –Freely falling objects –Vectors –Kinematics + Vectors = Vector Kinematics –Relative motion –Projectile motion –Uniform circular motion –Newton’s Laws –Force of Gravity/Normal Force –Free Body Diagrams –Problem solving –Uniform Circular Motion

Department of Physics and Applied Physics 95.141, F2010, Lecture 10 Highway Curves In order for the car to make a curve without slipping/skidding, need sufficient Force from friction. This force is a static friction, even though the car is moving!! Coordinate system!!!

Department of Physics and Applied Physics 95.141, F2010, Lecture 10 Flat Curves (unbanked) What is the coefficient of static friction required to make an unbanked curve with radius R, for a car traveling with a speed v?

Department of Physics and Applied Physics 95.141, F2010, Lecture 10 Banked Curves Can a car make a turn on a banked frictionless surface without skidding? For speed v, radius R, what angle is required? Coordinate system!!

Department of Physics and Applied Physics 95.141, F2010, Lecture 10 Example Problem A car goes around an unbanked curve (R=100m) at a speed of 50m/s. The concrete/tire interface has a coefficient of static friction of 1. Can the car make this turn?

Department of Physics and Applied Physics 95.141, F2010, Lecture 10 Example Problem A car goes around an banked curve (R=100m) at a speed of 50m/s. Ignoring friction, what angle should the curve be banked at to allow the car to make the curve?

Department of Physics and Applied Physics 95.141, F2010, Lecture 10 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation We know that falling objects accelerate. We also know that if an object accelerates, there must be a force acting on it. The Force that accelerates falling bodies is gravity. But what exerts this force? Since all falling objects fall towards the center of the Earth, Newton suggested that it is the Earth itself which is exerting this Force.

Department of Physics and Applied Physics 95.141, F2010, Lecture 10 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation What form does this Force take? 1) Dependence on distance –Newton knew that the moon orbited the Earth. –We know that a circular motion requires an inward radial acceleration

Department of Physics and Applied Physics 95.141, F2010, Lecture 10 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation So if the Force causing the moon to orbit the Earth, is the same force which causes object to accelerate at the surface of the Earth, then this Force goes as the inverse square of the distance from the center of the Earth

Department of Physics and Applied Physics 95.141, F2010, Lecture 10 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation The other thing we should note, is that the Force due to gravity produces the same acceleration for ALL OBJECTS, regardless of mass. So this is a Force which must scale with the mass of the object. Symmetry (Newton’s 3 rd Law) also suggests that this Force must depend on the mass of the Earth, or the second body.

Department of Physics and Applied Physics 95.141, F2010, Lecture 10 Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation Finally, Newton argues that if this is the Force causing the moon to orbit the Earth, perhaps it is also the Force causing the planets to Orbit the sun. In fact, perhaps every mass exerts a gravitational force on every other mass in the universe. And we can write this force as

Department of Physics and Applied Physics 95.141, F2010, Lecture 10 Direction of Gravitational Force Force is a vector, and therefore has a magnitude and direction. Direction is along line connecting two masses.

Department of Physics and Applied Physics 95.141, F2010, Lecture 10 Example Problem Imagine 3 Blocks, of equal mass, placed at three corners of a square. Draw the gravitational Force vectors acting on each block. 1 2 3

Department of Physics and Applied Physics 95.141, F2010, Lecture 10 Gravitational Attraction Between Two People Tom Cruise (160lbs) and Katie Holmes (118lbs) are dancing (about 0.5 m apart). What is attractive Force of Gravity between them?

Department of Physics and Applied Physics 95.141, F2010, Lecture 10 Gravity at Earth’s Surface If this law is correct, what should we get for F g at the Earth’s surface?

Department of Physics and Applied Physics 95.141, F2010, Lecture 10 Satellites Imagine I throw a ball with some horizontal velocity v o. In previous chapters, we studied projectile motion, which tells us the ball will accelerate towards earth and eventually fall to Earth. But this is an approximation…the Earth is not flat, and the Force of gravity is not “downward”, but towards the center of the Earth.

Department of Physics and Applied Physics 95.141, F2010, Lecture 10 Satellites In order for an object to travel with uniform circular motion, a radial Force is required. What speed would the ball need to have to travel in a circular path at the surface of the Earth?

Department of Physics and Applied Physics 95.141, F2010, Lecture 10 Satellites The uniform circular motion due to gravitation is known as an “orbit”, and an orbiting object is often referred to as a “satellite”. We can calculate the speed of a satellite for a given orbital radius

Department of Physics and Applied Physics 95.141, F2010, Lecture 10 Geosynchronous Orbit A geosynchronous orbit, is one that orbits at the same speed the Earth rotates, so that the satellite stays at the same position with respect to Earth as it orbits. How can we calculate the height of a satellite of mass M in geosynchronous orbit?

Department of Physics and Applied Physics 95.141, F2010, Lecture 10 Weightlessness Remember, we define weight as the magnitude of the Force of gravity acting on an object. At the surface of Earth this is mg. But we measure weight, by measuring the Force a mass exerts on a scale. Imagine we are weighing a mass in an elevator. If the elevator is at rest, or moving at a constant velocity, what does the scale read?

Department of Physics and Applied Physics 95.141, F2010, Lecture 10 Weightlessness Now, if the elevator is accelerating upwards with a=g/2. What is the mass’ apparent weight?

Department of Physics and Applied Physics 95.141, F2010, Lecture 10 Weightlessness Now, if the elevator is in freefall (a=-g). What is the mass’ apparent weight?

Department of Physics and Applied Physics 95.141, F2010, Lecture 10 Weightlessness The “weightlessness” one experiences in orbit is exactly the same one would feel in a freely falling elevator. Remember, the Force causing a satellite to orbit is the Force of Gravity….in essence, the satellite is freely falling.

Department of Physics and Applied Physics 95.141, F2010, Lecture 10 Kepler’s Laws Kepler’s laws of planetary motion –Empirical (Experimental) Kepler’s 1 st Law: The path of each planet around the sun is an ellipse with the sun at one focus a b a  semi-major axis b  semi-minor axis e  eccentricity e  es/a es

Department of Physics and Applied Physics 95.141, F2010, Lecture 10 Kepler’s Laws Kepler’s 2 nd Law: Each planet moves so that an imaginary line drawn from the sun to the planet sweeps out equal areas in equal periods of time t  t 

Department of Physics and Applied Physics 95.141, F2010, Lecture 10 Kepler’s Laws Kepler’s 3 rd Law: The ratio of the squares of the periods of any two planets revolving around the sun is equal to the ratio of the cubes of their semi-major axes. s1s1 s2s2

Department of Physics and Applied Physics 95.141, F2010, Lecture 10 Newton’s Synthesis Newton was able to derive Kepler’s experimental laws from his Universal Law of Gravity. Perturbations

Department of Physics and Applied Physics 95.141, F2010, Lecture 10 Kepler’s 3 rd Law: Circular Orbit Earth’s orbit around sun has e=0.017, almost circular. Can we prove Kepler’s third law for circular orbits?

Department of Physics and Applied Physics 95.141, F2010, Lecture 10 Example Problem If we know the Earth’s distance from the sun, can we determine the sun’s mass from Kepler’s laws?

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