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Technologies For use on different layers. Technologies Client tier Client tier to middle tier protocols Middle tier technologies Middle tier to data tier.

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Presentation on theme: "Technologies For use on different layers. Technologies Client tier Client tier to middle tier protocols Middle tier technologies Middle tier to data tier."— Presentation transcript:

1 Technologies For use on different layers

2 Technologies Client tier Client tier to middle tier protocols Middle tier technologies Middle tier to data tier technologies

3 But first…what is a protocol? ‘In computing, a protocol is a convention or standard that controls or enables the connection, communication, and data transfer between two computing endpoints. In its simplest form, a protocol can be defined as the rules governing the syntax, semantics, and synchronization of communication. Protocols may be implemented by hardware, software, or a combination of the two. At the lowest level, a protocol defines the behaviour of a hardware connection.’ –

4… Protocols are generally used to define real-time communications behaviour. Most protocols specify one or more of the following behaviours: –Detection of the underlying physical connection (wired or wireless), or the existence of the other endpoint or node –HandshakingHandshaking –Negotiation of various connection characteristics –How to start and end a message –How to format a message –What to do with corrupted or improperly formatted messages –How to detect unexpected loss of the connection, and what to do next –Termination of the session or connection

5 Client tier Client applications –Human to human communications: E-mail, instant messaging, USENET news, chat. File transfer or file swapping. Remote login. Proprietary applications (e.g. a multi-user game). –Clients hosted in a Web browser can use the following: HTML forms. JavaScript. Proprietary plug-ins (e.g. Flash). ActiveX controls. Java applets.

6 Client tier protocols IMAP for e-mail AIM for instant messaging HTTP/CGI for HTML forms Browser Apps and plug-ins can be written in: –Java, C++, Eiffel, Fortran, even Cobol. –Need a compiler for your chosen language that will put the code into a DLL (MS Windows) or shared library (UNIX).

7 HTML Visually rich and widely supported. Forms are primitive and not automatically validated on the client. Not visually pleasing ( step through pages, each of which flashes white before it is drawn).

8 JavaScript Permits some programming on the client side. –E.g. data validation. Interpreted, so slower than compiled code. Not purely object-oriented. Different browsers provide different levels of support.

9 Plug-ins and ActiveX Plug-Ins –Can provide client interaction. –Need to be downloaded and installed. –Each one requires different programming expertise. –Must be ported by supplier to each new platform. ActiveX controls –These are 32-bit Windows binaries, hosted by a web browser. They can only run on Windows. –Controls such as clocks and calendars can be added to forms.

10 Java and new clients JAVA –Simple –Pure object-oriented language. –Prohibits access to resources on the local machine without user authorisation. New clients –Mobile phones –PDAs (Personal Digital Assistant) –Most of the technologies have a version for these.

11 Client tier to middle tier protocols Communicates between the client and the server. Layered: –At the bottom, TCP/IP –SSL (Secure Socket Layer) which encrypts and decrypts information for privacy and integrity (optional layer). –Secure HTTP (HTTPS), allowing a client to request a document by URI and get back the contents of that document (e.g. Squirrelmail) (optional layer). –JRMP (Java Remote Method Protocol) allows Remote Method Invocation (RMI), allowing an object to send a method to a remote object.

12 How RMI can use a network aClientaServant JRMP HTTPS (Optional) SSL (Optional) TCP/IP After O’Docherty, M.,’Object-Oriented Analysis and Design’, p245, Wiley, 2005

13 Continued… Commonly used protocols can be specialised and general: Specialised: –IMAP (e-mail) –AIM (AOL Instant Messaging) –NNTP (USENET news) –HTTP / CGI (HTML forms) –FTP (File transfer protocol) –Telnet (remote login) General: –TCP/IP (low level transport, also known as sockets) –JRMP (for Java-to-Java communications) –IIOP (for CORBA communications Like RMI, but lots of different languages.

14 Middle tier technologies This tier (layer) is reached when the user’s interaction with the system is accepted and has been passed on to a server. Server applications may be multi-threaded and designed for high capacity. A server application ‘listens’ to a port (connection point) for clients to connect. Applications can be stand-alone or can be run from a web-server.

15 Stand-alone applications Mail, messaging, news, chat servers. FTP daemon –A daemon is a type of housekeeping task, that is used by the operating system in a multitasking environment, to ensure that all tasks are properly initiated and ended. Telnet daemon Naming services –These allow clients to find the server object by name E.g.: CORBA registry RMI registry or Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) server ( a general name-to-thing mapping service) Proprietary server (e.g. a process hosting CORBA or RMI objects, an EJB client or a.NET client).

16 Server code Hosted by a web server: –JSP (Java Server Pages) for building Web pages. Raw HTML interspersed with Java code. –ASP (Active Server Pages) (VB version) –CGI scripts Textual files written in a command language (e.g. PERL – usually invoked by HTML) –Servlets (Java server objects that are instantiated on demand by applets, JSPs or HTML forms).

17 Middle tier to data tier technologies To access the data tier, either: –Include database-client code on the middle tier, sot we can access a DBMS running on the data tier (e.g. using Java and JDBC (Java Database Connectivity)) –Use same protocols as for client-to-middle tier –Use some non-TCP/IP protocol (legacy system) –Include Enterprise Java Beans (EJB) client code in our middle-tier server and access the data tier via EJBs (see next slide) –Include.NET code in the middle tier server. (Microsoft version of EJB)

18 Enterprise JavaBeans The Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) specification is one of the several Java APIs in the Java Platform, Enterprise Edition. EJB is a server-side component that encapsulates the business logic of an application. The application server provides: –persistence –transaction processing –concurrency control –events using Java Message Service –naming and directory services (JNDI) –security –deployment of software components in an application server remote procedure calls using RMI-IIOP or CORBA Additionally, the Enterprise JavaBean specification defines the roles played by the EJB container and the EJBs as well as how to deploy the EJBs in a container. –

19 How they fit together

20 Client tier

21 Middle tier

22 Data tier

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