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Axis Deviation Chapter 5.

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Presentation on theme: "Axis Deviation Chapter 5."— Presentation transcript:

1 Axis Deviation Chapter 5

2 Definition Electrical axis...
The general direction in the frontal plane or toward which lead the QRS complex is predominately oriented ...the mean direction of depolarization through the frontal plane of the heart


4 Mean QRS Axis Calculation
Lead II

5 Mean QRS Axis Calculation
General rules the mean QRS axis points midway between any two leads that show tall R waves of equal height the mean QRS axis is oriented at right angles (90°) to any lead showing a bi-phasic complex

6 Mean QRS Axis Calculation

7 Mean QRS Axis Calculation

8 Mean QRS Axis Calculation

9 Mean QRS Axis Calculation

10 Mean QRS Axis Calculation

11 Normal versus Deviation
Left 3 ? 1 ? 2 ? Right + 90∘

12 Axis Deviation Left Right

13 Axis Deviation Criteria
LEAD I LEAD II (or Lead aVF or III) Normal Positive LAD Negative RAD Intermediate axis

14 Axis Deviation RAD = If R wave in III > R wave in II
LAD = If R wave in aVL > I; and deep S wave in III

15 Axis deviation ? ?

16 Axis deviation ?

17 Axis deviation ?

18 What is the axis? Right

19 What is the axis? Left

20 What is the axis? Normal

21 What is the axis? Left

22 What is the axis? Normal

23 What is the axis? Right

24 Causes of Left Axis Deviation
FYI • left anterior hemiblock • Q waves of inferior myocardial infarction • artificial cardiac pacing • emphysema • hyperkalaemia • Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome - right sided accessory pathway • tricuspid atresia • ostium primum ASD • injection of contrast into left coronary artery note: left ventricular hypertrophy is not a cause left axis deviation

25 Causes of Right Axis Deviation
FYI • normal finding in children and tall thin adults • right ventricular hypertrophy • chronic lung disease even without pulmonary hypertension • anterolateral myocardial infarction • left posterior hemiblock • pulmonary embolus • Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome - left sided accessory pathway • atrial septal defect • ventricular septal defect

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