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Preliminary Assessment of Porous Gas-Cooled and Thin- Liquid-Protected Divertors S. I. Abdel-Khalik, S. Shin, and M. Yoda ARIES Meeting, UCSD (March 2004) G. W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering Atlanta, GA 30332–0405 USA

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2 Outline Porous Gas Cooled Divertors Thin-Liquid-Protected Divertors

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3 Compare predictions of the MERLOT code against FLUENT (6.1.22) predictions Assess impact of using the incompressible fluid continuity equation on MERLOT’s Predictions Porous Gas Cooled Divertors Objective

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4 Porous Gas Cooled Divertors Test Problem Definition FLUENT has been used to solve the conservation equations (mass, momentum, and energy) Assumptions Laminar flow Isotropic porosity Either incompressible or compressible flow Local thermodynamic equilibrium between the gas and solid matrix Two-dimensional (r, ) 60 754 grid for r and directional resolution surface heat flux flow inlet to porous channel flow outlet from porous channel roro riri r r o =12 mm, r i =9 mm

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5 Porous Gas Cooled Divertors Effective Heat Transfer Coeffcient Effective heat transfer coefficient [W/m 2 K] [radian] T in =823K, T out =1423K Heat input : Q =30 MW/m 2, Porous medium characteristic dimension : d p =0.1 mm, Porosity : =0.8 Coolant: Helium at 823K & 4.0 MPa c pg =5191 J/kg K, k g =0.3 W/m K, g =3.96 10 -5 kg/m s, g =2.327 kg/m 3 (for incompressible) Solid Structure : k s =100W/m K, s =19300 kg/m 3, c ps =132 J/kg K

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6 Temperature [K] [radian] helium gas bulk temperature wall temperature Incompressible Compressible Porous Gas Cooled Divertors Temperature Distribution

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7 Pressure drop [MPa] Velocity [m/s] Pressure drop [MPa] Velocity [m/s] Ergun equation Pressure drop P = T in =823K, Q =5 MW/m 2, d p =0.1 mm Porosity : =0.5 Porosity : =0.8 Porous Gas Cooled Divertors Pressure Drop

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8 Porous Gas-Cooled Divertors Preliminary Conclusions Heat transfer coefficients predicted by MERLOT and FLUENT appear to be consistent Pressure drop predicted by MERLOT is significantly lower than that predicted by FLUENT for either compressible or incompressible assumption Acceleration pressure drop due to gas compressibility effects can not be ignored

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9 This work is aimed at establishing limits for the maximum allowable temperature gradients (i.e. heat flux gradients) to prevent film rupture due to thermocapillary effects Thin-Liquid-Protected Divertors Objective A maximum allowable surface temperature has been established to limit liquid evaporation and plasma contamination (~380 o C for Li)

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10 Thin-Liquid-Protected Divertors Problem Definition Non-uniform wall temperature Wall Thin Film h o initial film thickness xlxl ylyl Initially, quiescent liquid and gas (u=0, v=0, T=T m at t=0) Liquid (Lithium) Gas (Air) periodic B.C. in x direction open B.C. at top, x y

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11 Evolution of the free surface is modeled using the Level Contour Reconstruction Method Two Grid Structures Volume - entire computational domain (both phases) discretized by a standard, uniform, stationary, finite difference grid. Phase Interface - discretized by Lagrangian points or elements whose motions are explicitly tracked. Phase 2 Phase 1 F Thin-Liquid-Protected Divertors Numerical Method

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12 A single field formulation Constant but unequal material properties Surface tension included as local surface delta function sources Energy Momentum Conservation of Mass Thin-Liquid-Protected Divertors Governing Equations

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13 Force on a line element NUMERICAL METHOD thermocapillary force normal surface tension force o =6.62 10 -2 N/m o =1.74 10 -4 N/m o C T m =573 K Thin-Liquid-Protected Divertors Variable Surface Tension Source Term Variable surface tension : BtBBtB AtAAtA n n : unit vector in normal direction t : unit vecotr in tangential direction : curvature

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14 Material property field ( Liquid=>Lithium, Gas=>Air* ) ( L =504.8 kg/m 3, G =1.046 kg/m 3 ) ( L =4.51 10 -4 kg/ms, G =2.0 10 -5 kg/ms) (c L =4287 J/kg o C, c G =1008 J/kg o C) (k L =46.6 W/m o C, k G =0.029 W/m o C) Thin-Liquid-Protected Divertors Material Properties * Effect of Liquid/Gas density ratio becomes insignificant for values 100

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15 Two-dimensional simulation with 0.01[m] 0.001[m] box size and 250 50 resolution h o =0.2 mm, T s =10 K Thin-Liquid-Protected Divertors Steady State Results, very thin films x [m] y [m] time [sec] y [m]

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16 Two-dimensional simulation with 0.01[m] 0.001[m] box size and 250 50 resolution h o =0.2 mm, T s =10 K Thin-Liquid-Protected Divertors Steady State Results, very thin films velocity vector plot temperature plot

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17 Two-dimensional simulation with 0.01[m] 0.001[m] box size, 250 50 resolution, and h o =0.2 mm Thin-Liquid-Protected Divertors Steady State Results, very thin films x [m] y [m] time [sec] y [m] black : T s =10 K blue : T s =20 K red : T s =30 K maximum y location minimum y location

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18 Thin-Liquid-Protected Divertors Steady State Results, moderate film thickness x [m] y [m] Two-dimensional simulation with 0.1[m] 0.01[m] box size and 250 50 resolution h o =2 mm, T s =100 K

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19 Two-dimensional simulation with 0.1[m] 0.01[m] box size and 250 50 resolution h o =2 mm, T s =100 K Thin-Liquid-Protected Divertors Steady State Results, moderate film thickness velocity vector plot temperature plot

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20 Two-dimensional simulation with 0.1[m] 0.01[m] box size, 250 50 resolution, and h o =2 mm Thin-Liquid-Protected Divertors Steady State Results, moderate film thickness y [m] time [sec] maximum y location minimum y location black : T s =100 K blue : T s =250 K

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21 Thin Liquid-Protected Divertors Preliminary Conclusions Methodology can be used to determine the Limiting values for temperature gradients (i.e. heat flux gradients) necessary to prevent film rupture In some cases (very thin films), limits may be more restrictive than surface temperature limits Path Forward: Generalized charts will be developed to determine the temperature gradient limits for different fluids and film thickness values

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