3 Goals Basic introduction to U.S. legal research Basic introduction to U.S. legal citation formatTour of Gallagher Law Library
4 Primary & Secondary Authority Statement of "the law" from bodies with law-making authoritySecondaryExplain, interpret, and help you locate the primary lawIncludes: Treatises, Hornbooks, law review articles, legal encyclopedias, Restatements, Nutshells etc.
6 How do Sources of Law Interact? Court interprets a statuteAn earlier court decision is overruled by same courtStatute held unconstitutional by a courtLegislature writes statute in response to a caseAgency proposed rules in response to statute.
7 Issues in Legal Research What type of law might govern your question?statutes? regulations? cases?Which jurisdiction?federal or state or both?Did you update your research?
8 Court Structure – Federal & State Court of Last ResortU.S. Supreme CourtWA Supreme CourtIntermediate Appellate Court↑Ninth Circuit* Court of Appeals* = Circuit mapWA Court of AppealsTrial Court ↑U.S. District Court for Western District of WAKing County Superior Court
9 U.S. Legal Citation Format The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation (KF245 .U th ed. in Reference Area)Going Beyond Casebooks Exercise,
10 Legal Citation format for CASES Pate v. Threlkel, 661 So.2d 278 (Fla. 1995)Party 1 v. Party 2, [volume number] [reporter name] [page number] ([jurisdiction sometimes] [year]).
11 Tools for finding cases on particular subjects DigestsIndex to National Reporter System. Find federal and state cases by legal issue or subject. Topic and Key Numbers. Examples: Federal Practice Digest, Pacific Digest.American Law Reports (ALR) and law review articles (secondary sources)Provide in-depth analysis of legal topic or case.Examples:Marjorie A. Shields, Annotation, Liability for Conversion and Misappropriation of Genetic Material, 121 A.L.R.5th 315 (2004).Edward J. Janger, 3 Genetic Information, Privacy and Insolvency, 3 J.L. Med. & Ethics 79 (2005).Lexis Nexis Academic (from UW Libraries LAW webpage)
14 Lexis Nexis Academic Available from UW Libraries LAW Subject webpage Cases, statutes, regulations“Legal Research” Search FormCases, Statutes, Regulations and secondary srouces (law review articles)“Get A Case” Search“Federal or State Case Law” SearchSafer v. Pack, 715 A.2d 363 (NJ 1998)Pate v. Threlkel, 661 So.2d 278Tarasoff, 131 Cal Rptr. 14Norman Bloodsaw v. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 135 F.3d 1260Rust v. Sullivan, 500 U.S. 173 (1991) – gag rule re” abortion counseling if receive federal $Washington v. Harper, 494 U.S. 210 (1990) – administer antispychotic meds against prison against wil. From WA.
15 Statutes Organized chronologically Session laws U.S. Statutes at Large (Stat.)Laws of WashingtonOrganized by subject (current laws in force)CodeU.S. CodeRevised Code of Washington
16 Legal Citation Format – U.S. laws Public LawPub.L. NoStatutes at Large115 Stat. 276Codes42 U.S.C. § § (2004)Title – United States Code – Sections – (year)
17 Image of U.S. Public LawHealth Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, Pub. L. NoHIPAA Pub. L
18 Annotated Codes Commercially-published Include text of law & history Provide citations to cases, regulations, law review articles, encyclopedias, formsUpdated promptlyUnited States Code Annotated (USCA)United States Code Service (USCS)**on LexisNexis Academic & Congressional
19 Finding Statutes Popular Names Table Index volume of USCS or USCA USA Patriot Act (Pub. L , 115 Stat. 276)(Oct. 26, 2001)National Bone Marrow Registry Reauthorization Act of 1998 (42 U.S.C. § 274)Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)Index volume of USCS or USCACasesSecondary sources (law review articles etc.)Lexis Nexis AcademicLexis Nexis CongressionalUS Code Service (sample search)Public Laws (sample search)Statutes at LargeLegislative History (sample search)
20 Finding Statutes - online Lexis Nexis Congressional and AcademicThomas (Washington State Legislature (CA Insurance Code Test for presence of genetic characteristics for determination of insurability.Pending federal legislation on genetic discrimination, privacy (even before 2000)LN Congressional – search for 42 USCS § 274 (2004) (show annotations) Organ procurement and transplantation networkCIS Index search for “insurance” in Legislative History of HIPAA 1996 (Pub. L. No )THOMAS: search current session for “genetic discrimination” – “Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2003 (S.1053)WA Legislature Site: search “genetic”, get WA Laws 2004 – ESB 6180 (prohibit genetic information in employment decisions)LN Academic: search CA “genetic and discriminat! and insur!”Model State Emergency Health Powers Act (MSEHPA) – portions of Act only become effective when public health emergency declared? A MODEL Act to help states to rapidly and orderly respond to bioterrorism, emerging epidemics, and other public health emergencies. (CDC) (Arizon, Florida, Utah, Maine (Chapter 694, 2002)
21 Where do you find Constitutions? FederalUnited States Code Annotated (USCA)United States Code Service (USCS) [on LexisNexis Academic & Congressional]GPO Access,StateRevised Code of Washington (RCW)All 50 state statutes on LexisNexis AcademicCornell’s Legal Information Institute,
22 Administrative LawRules, regulations, and decisions created by administrative agencies (federal and state).Authorized by StatutePower to issue regulations & adjudicate disputes delegated to executive agencies by Congress via an enabling statute.Procedural Standards? YES = Administrative Procedure Act (APA) (5 USC §551 et seq.).Notice of proposed ruleComment periodFinal rule & response to comments
23 U.S. Regulations Federal Register Code of Federal Regulations Published dailyIncludes:proposed regulations & new regulationsPresidential documents: Executive Orders & ProclamationsCode of Federal RegulationsPublished annuallyIncludes: current rules & regulations in forceIndex & finding tables
24 Citation Format: Regulations 65 Fed. Reg (Jan. 21, 2000)Volume – Federal Register – Page (date)7 CFR § (2003)Title–Code of Federal Regulations–Section (year)
26 How to find Regulations? Index to the Code of Federal RegulationsCFR Index volume (KF70 at Ref Area)USCS Index to the CFR (KF 62 at Ref Area)West’s CRF Index (KF70 .A34 at Ref Area)Federal Register Index“Unified Agenda” (published in April & October)Annotated CodesUnited States Code Annotated (USCA)United States Code Service (USCS)Secondary SourcesPrefer options in CongressionalSame time coverageExample searchesRegs under HIPPA – 65 Fed. Reg (Dec. 28, 2000) – confidentiality & privacy of medical records.29 C.F.R (rule to protect health care workers from exposure ot bloodborne pathogens – viruses causing Hepatitis B and AIDS) – from Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 1991,63 Fed. Reg (1998) (DHHS rules requiring Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network to develop a nationwide organ allocation system based on need rather than location.LN Congressional: “organ allocation” “health and human services” “final rules” “past 10 years” DHS Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network 64 FR (amends 42 CFR Part 121)
27 Regulations Online LexisNexis Academic and Congressional GPO Access,
28 Secondary Sources Law Reviews Books Full-Text on Lexis Nexis Academic Use an index to find articles, LegalTracBooksLaw Library CatalogUW Libraries Catalog
29 Update Your Research Cases – use online citator (Shepard’s or Keycite) Statutes – check pocket parts & supplements (print)Regulations – use List of Sections Affected (LSA) & Federal Register (print)
30 Free Websites with U.S. Legal Information Internet Legal ResearchCornell’s Legal Information InstituteFindlawGPO AccessThomasU.S. Supreme Court
31 Conclusion Cases, Statutes, Regulations & law reviews available: In PRINT – at Gallagher Law LibraryONLINE – via UW Libraries “Law” subject webpage (Questions? Ask a Librarian