INTRODUCTION TO GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Orhan Gündüz.
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INTRODUCTION TO GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Orhan Gündüz
Geographic information system (GIS) is A computer hardware and software that is designed to support the capture, analysis and display of spatially referenced data for solving complex planning and management problems
Geographic information system (GIS) is A system of hardware and software that links mapped objects with text information that describes them and provides tools for storage, retrival and manupilation of both types of data
Data Capture Management Manipulation Analysis Display Data Store Retrive Manipulate
GIS DATA Spatial Data (Mapped data) Attribute Data (Tabular data) thus we deal with database management… GIS is a map with a database…
Some properties of GIS: 1.It is a map with a database 2.Data can be stored, retrived, manipulated and analyzed 3.It is a combination of a pictural image and associated data 4.It contains cartographic features like points, lines polygons and their attributes 5.New information is generated through system operations 6.Querrying attribute and/or spatial data is possible 7.Many procedures can be automated within the system
INFORMATION SYSTEMS Spatial information systems Non-spatial information systems Geographic information systems Other spatial information systems Land information systems Other GIS Parcel-based land information system Other land information system Population, census, … CAD systems w/o attribute data… Cadastre..Forest inventories...
Cartographic capabilities of GIS: 1.Coordinate geometry and translation routines 2.Edge matching routines 3.Projection routines 4.Zooming and scaling routines 5.Lenght and area computation routines 6.Curve fitting routines
Database management capabilities of GIS: 1.Organization of data 2.Seperation of graphic and non-graphic data 3.Linking attribute data to geographic data 4.Attribute processing 5.Data retrival 6.Data manipulation 7.Data storage 8.Maintenance of integratity of data
Analytical capabilities of GIS: 1.Data processing 2.Computational operations 3.Modeling 4.Thematic mapping 5.Spatial analysis 6.Graphic and non-graphic editing 7.Generation of new data
GIS Users 1.Causal end-users (occasional users, middle to upper level managers) 2.Naive or parametric end-users (unsophisticated users, require a specific GUI) 3.Sophisticated end-users (engineers, scientists, consultants, GIS lecturers)