IS112 – Chapter 1 Notes Computer Organization and Programming Professor Catherine Dwyer 2003.
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IS112 – Chapter 1 Notes Computer Organization and Programming Professor Catherine Dwyer 2003
Systems Architecture Chapter 1 Chapter Goals Describe primary activities of information systems professionals. Describe technical knowledge of computer hardware and systems software needed by IS professionals. Identify sources of information for continuing education in computer hardware and systems software.
Systems Architecture Chapter 1 IS Professionals Responsible for acquisition and installation of technological devices Responsible for design, development, and installation of information systems
Systems Architecture Chapter 1 Acquiring and Configuring Technological Devices To purchase a computer, you must: –Know business hardware and software preferences. –Know business hardware and software requirements. –Have sufficient knowledge of the available alternatives. –Understand related technical terms.
Systems Architecture Chapter 1 Information System Development
Systems Architecture Chapter 1 Systems Survey Step Examines user information needs, how needs are currently being addressed, and feasibility of developing or acquiring an information system to address those needs. Takes days or weeks to complete. Determines cost/benefits of alternative systems, and whether the estimated benefit of new solution is justified. Requires knowledge of hardware and systems software to assess the degree to which user needs are currently being met, and to estimate the resources required to address unmet needs.
Systems Architecture Chapter 1 Systems Analysis Step Examines the user needs and the extent to which they are being met. Called needs analysis or requirements analysis. –Takes weeks or months to complete. –Produces a requirements document. –Reexamines and answers systems survey questions in more detail.
Systems Architecture Chapter 1 Systems Analysis Step – cont. Typical outcomes: –Detailed descriptions of user interfaces and data access speed –Detailed data-processing and storage requirements
Systems Architecture Chapter 1 Systems Design Step Determines the exact configuration of all hardware and software components. Design step tasks: –Selecting computer hardware –Selecting computer software –Selecting application program development tools
Systems Architecture Chapter 1 Systems Design Step – cont. Design decisions made based on earlier decisions: –Files or database design –Program design –User interface design –Design of system backup and recovery mechanisms
Systems Architecture Chapter 1 Systems Design Step – cont.
Systems Architecture Chapter 1 Systems Design Step – cont. Technical knowledge needed: –System requirements and the capabilities of that hardware and operating system –Development tool selection
Systems Architecture Chapter 1 Systems Implementation Step Constructed based on the “blue prints” created during systems design Hardware and systems software are acquired, installed, configured and tested Application programs and files are developed, installed and tested The entire system is tested
Systems Architecture Chapter 1 Systems Implementation Step- cont. Technical knowledge needed: –Knowledge of hardware and systems software –Installation and configuration of hardware and systems software –Knowledge of how to format storage devices, set up security systems, install application programs and establish accounting and auditing systems
Systems Architecture Chapter 1 Maintenance Step System is evaluated for errors that escaped undetected during installation and testing. Minor changes are made as maintenance changes.
Systems Architecture Chapter 1 Maintenance Step – cont. Technical knowledge needed: –Knowledge is needed to classify the proposed change as minor or major –Knowledge is needed about the hardware and software components that are affected by the change
Systems Architecture Chapter 1 Management of Computer Resources Knowledge is needed to manage the computer resources within a large organization. The manager of a collection of information systems must contend with a great deal of technical complexity.
Systems Architecture Chapter 1 Management of Computer Resources Attention must be paid to two important technological issues: –Compatibility –Future trends
Systems Architecture Chapter 1 Management of Computer Resources Compatibility: –The new system must not only operate correctly by itself, but also operates smoothly with all of the other systems in the organization.
Systems Architecture Chapter 1 Management of Computer Resources Future Trends: –The manager must have a broad understanding of current technology, as well as future technology trends.
Systems Architecture Chapter 1 Roles and Job Titles Computer Professional Groups: –Application Development Personnel –Systems Software Personnel –Hardware Personnel –Systems Management Personnel
Systems Architecture Chapter 1 Computer Technology Information Sources Sources to keep you up-to-date in the field: –Periodical literature –Technology-oriented Web sites –Vendor and Manufacturer Web sites –Professional Societies
Systems Architecture Chapter 1 Computer Technology Information Sources Periodical Literature: –ACM Computing Surveys –Computerworld –Communications of the ACM –Computer
Systems Architecture Chapter 1 Computer Technology Information Sources
Systems Architecture Chapter 1 Computer Technology Information Sources Technology-Oriented Web Sites: There are many Web sites that are devoted to serving the information needs of computer professionals.
Systems Architecture Chapter 1 Computer Technology Information Sources
Systems Architecture Chapter 1 Computer Technology Information Sources Vendor and Manufacturer Web Sites: Vendor Web Pages are oriented to sales, but they usually contain detailed information on products either directly or as links to manufacturer Web sites.
Systems Architecture Chapter 1 C omputer Technology Information Sources
Systems Architecture Chapter 1 Professional Societies Association for Information Technology Professionals (AITP) Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Computer Society
Systems Architecture Chapter 1 Summary Technical knowledge of computer hardware and systems software is required to develop information systems. Technical knowledge also is required to manage the computer resources of an organization. Technical knowledge constantly must be updated due to changes in hardware and software technology.
Systems Architecture Chapter 1 Summary Information about computer hardware and software is readily available on the World Wide Web. An understanding of computer technology is necessary. Computer knowledge can be updated through reading periodicals, using Web sites and joining professional societies.