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ENEE350 Spring07 1 Ankur Srivastava University of Maryland, College Park Adapted from Computer Organization and Design, Patterson & Hennessy, © 2005.”

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Presentation on theme: "ENEE350 Spring07 1 Ankur Srivastava University of Maryland, College Park Adapted from Computer Organization and Design, Patterson & Hennessy, © 2005.”"— Presentation transcript:

1 ENEE350 Spring07 1 Ankur Srivastava University of Maryland, College Park Adapted from Computer Organization and Design, Patterson & Hennessy, © 2005.” Acknowledgement: Based on Slides By Mary Jane Irwin PSU Computer Systems Organization: Lecture 2

2 ENEE350 Spring07 2 Basic Datapath Organization Registers are a bank of flip flops. Are expensive to have in large numbers, therefore need to be augmented by memory (DRAMS, SRAMS, DISKS) ALURegistersMemory

3 ENEE350 Spring07 3 The MIPS Register File $zero: stores 0 $v0 $v1: values of expression evaluation $a0-$a3: needed for procedure parameters $t0-$t9: temporary registers $s0-s7: saved registers $gp: global pointer $sp: stack pointer $fp: frame pointer $ra: procedure return address $at, $k0-$k1: reserved for assembler and OS

4 ENEE350 Spring07 4 The MIPS Register File $at, $k0-$k1: reserved for assembler and OS

5 ENEE350 Spring07 5 The MIPS Memory Organization Viewed as a large, single-dimension array, with an address. A memory address is an index into the array "Byte addressing" means that the index points to a byte of memory bits of data

6 ENEE350 Spring07 6 The MIPS Memory Organization But most meaningful data is around 32 bits long (length of a MIPS word) bits of data 2 32 bytes with byte addresses from 0 to words with byte addresses 0, 4, 8,...

7 ENEE350 Spring07 7 MIPS Arithmetic Instruction Add $t0, $s1, $s2 Sub $t0, $s1, $s2 destination  source1 op source2 C Instruction: f = g+h – (i + j) Assuming s1, s2, s3,s4 contain g,h,i,j Add $t0 $s1 $s2 Add $t1 $s3 $s4 Sub $s0 $t0 $t1

8 ENEE350 Spring07 8 MIPS Arithmetic Instruction What if we want to process data in memory and not in registers Example: g = h + A[8] Now A is an array whose base address in say register s3 We want to access 8 th WORD in A; Lw $t0 32($s3) # Load the word at byte location 32 after the address in register s3 into register t0. 32=8*4 (8 th word in A) Add $t1 $s1 $t0 # Assuming s1 has h

9 ENEE350 Spring07 9 MIPS Arithmetic Instruction What if we want to process data in memory and not in registers Example: A[12] = h + A[8] Now A is an array whose base address in say register s3 We want to access 8 th WORD in A; Lw $t0 32($s3) Add $t1 $s1 $t0 Sw $t1 48(s3) #stores the word in t1 There is another instruction called MOVE Move $reg1 $reg2 #copy data from reg2 to reg1

10 ENEE350 Spring07 10 Constants Y = x + 4 One approach is to store constants in memory and load them using lw instruction Another Approach Addi $t0 $s1 4 # assuming x is in register s1.

11 ENEE350 Spring07 11 Logical Operations MIPS allows several logical operations on the data stored in registers Shift Left Sll $t2 $s0 4 # shift the data in register s0 left by 4 bits and store result in t2 Shift Right Similar ……………….

12 ENEE350 Spring07 12 Logical Operations AND operation And $t0 $t1 $t2 #performs a bit by bit and OR operation: similar NOR operation: similar AND Immediate Andi $s1 $s2 100 OR Immediate: Similar

13 ENEE350 Spring07 13 Representing Instructions in Machine Code Artihmetic and Logical –Add –Sub –Add Immediate –And –Or –Nor –And Immediate –Or Immediate –Shift Logical Left –Shift Logical Right Data Transfer –Load Word –Store Word

14 ENEE350 Spring07 14 Representing Instructions in Machine Code All these instructions are represented in 32 bits Two Formats R Type (register type) I Type (immediate type) op rs rt rdshamtfunct 6bits5 bits5bits5bits5bits6bits Op rs rt constant or address 6 bits 5 bits 5 bits 16 bits

15 ENEE350 Spring07 15 Representing Instructions in Machine Code All these instructions are represented in 32 bits Op: Basic Operation Rs: first source register id Rt: second source register id Rd: destination register id Shamt: shift amount funct: selects the specific variant of the instruction op rs rt rdshamtfunct 6bits5 bits5bits5bits5bits6bits

16 ENEE350 Spring07 16 Representing Instructions in Machine Code I Type (immediate type) Op, rs and rt are same as before 16 bits are devoted for immediate data or address Op rs rt constant or address 6 bits 5 bits 5 bits 16 bits

17 ENEE350 Spring07 17 Representing Instructions in Machine Code Add $s1 $s2 $s3: note there is a number corresponding to each of the 32 registers Sub $s1 $s2 $s

18 ENEE350 Spring07 18 Representing Instructions in Machine Code Lw $s1 100($s2) Addi $s1 $s

19 ENEE350 Spring07 19 Stored Program Concept Programs are compiled into a sequence of instructions and stored in memory Instructions are fetched, decoded and executed Sometimes we need branches too (if statements etc.) Branches change the execution course of the program. Each instruction has an address, branches can change the next executed instruction (which may not be the next instruction in execution sequence)

20 ENEE350 Spring07 20 MIPS Instructions for Decision In C, decisions are supported using if statements etc. MIPS has corresponding decision making instructions as well Beq register1 reister2, L1 #If data in register 1 and register 2 are the same then goto instruciton L1 Bne register1 register2 L1 #If data in registers is not the same …… J L1#Unconditional Jump to L1

21 ENEE350 Spring07 21 MIPS Instructions for Decision Example: if (I == J) f = g +h else f = g-h Lets assume that s3=I, s4=J, s1=g and s2=h Bne $s3 $s4 ELSE Add $s0 $s1 $s2 j EXIT ELSE: sub $s0 $s1 $s2 EXIT: EXIT, ELSE etc. are labels of instructions, the assembler will put the appropriate instruction address there

22 ENEE350 Spring07 22 MIPS Instructions for Decision if a < b then x = 1 else x = 0 slt $t0, $s1, $s2 # if s1 is less than s2 then t0 = 1 else t0 =0 It can be seen that the above if statement can be easily implemented using slt slti $t0, $s1 CONSTANT

23 ENEE350 Spring07 23 J Type: Another Instruction Format Remember the instruction jump; there is a J Type instruction format also J L1 op 26 bit address

24 ENEE350 Spring07 24 So Far…

25 ENEE350 Spring07 25 Different Instruction Formats op rs rt rdshamtfunct op rs rt 16 bit address op 26 bit address RIJRIJ

26 ENEE350 Spring07 26 MIPS Instructions for 32 bit Immediate Many times we need more bits representing the constants in immediate instructions and addresses in branch instructions. That is where we need the following instructions If we want a register to have the constant Lui $s This is load upper immediate. It loads the most significant 16 bits of s0 as the 16 bit constant, the rest of the bist are 0 Ori $s0 $s This will enable s0 to have the desired data

27 ENEE350 Spring07 27 MIPS Instructions for 32 bit Immediates Instructions like J L1 (jump L1) have 26 bits for the new address information. Instructions like bne have only 16 bits for the new instruction In order to increase the range of the jump or branch, the address of the new instruction to jump to is typically calculated using the following formula Address = PC + Branch Address (provided in the instruction) PC is the register that contains the address of the current instruction being executed This is called as PC relative addressing Other addressing modes have also been devised

28 ENEE350 Spring07 28 Byte Level Operations Load Half Lh $s1 100($s2) # s1 = Memory[s2+100 th byte], loads 2 bytes from this location and places them at rightmost 2 bytes of s1 Write Half Wh $s1 100($s2) Load Byte Lb…. Store Byte Sb……

29 ENEE350 Spring07 29 Supporting Procedures Just Like C, procedure handling has the following steps Place parameters where the procedure can access them Transfer control to the procedure Acquire storage resources needed for the procedure Perform the desired task Place the result where calling procedure can read it Return the point of control back to the calling procedure

30 ENEE350 Spring07 30 Supporting Procedures Registers $a0-$a3 : Four argument registers into which the parameters are transferred $v0-$v1: Two registers in which the procedure puts the data $ra: return address register, remembers the instruction that we need to return to after the procedure Jump and Link Instruction Jal Procedure Address This instruction jumps to the address of the procedure and also saves the instruction address to be executed next in register $ra.

31 ENEE350 Spring07 31 Supporting Procedures Jump Register Instruction Jr $Ra This instruction jumps to the address of the instruction in register ra. This is needed for giving the control back to the calling procedure after the called procedure has executed. Thus the calling procedure puts the parameters in $a0-$a3 and executes JAL to goto the procedure. Then jr is used to bring the control back

32 ENEE350 Spring07 32 Supporting Procedures Several times the procedure needs more registers In which case the procedure is allowed to use other registers but needs to restore them to original values It takes the registers it needs and stores their original content in memory using a stack data structure A special register called $SP is used to store the current head of the stack. Question: What is a stack?

33 ENEE350 Spring07 33 Supporting Procedures By convention the stack grows from a higher address to a lower address. By convention on the $s0-s7 registers are saved and not $t0- t9

34 ENEE350 Spring07 34 Supporting Procedures Overall –Communicate the parameters to a0-a3 –JAL to procedure (this will move the reutrn address to ra) –Backup any registers that need backing up –Execute the Procedure –Restore the registers from memory –Move the result to v0-v1 registers –Return the control back using Jr instruction

35 ENEE350 Spring07 35 Supporting Procedures Example int example(int g, int h, int i, int j) { int f; f = (g+h)-(i+j); return f; } The calling procedure will put the values of g,h,i,j in $a0,$a1…$a3. Now we need to store the value of f in say $s0 But what about the data in s0 already, that needs to be backed up

36 ENEE350 Spring07 36 Supporting Procedures Example int example(int g, int h, int i, int j) { int f; f = (g+h)-(i+j); return f; } Addi $sp $sp -4 #Make space for one word on the stack Sw $s0 0($sp) # store the current data in s0 Add $t0 $a0 $a1 Add $t1 $a2 $a3 Sub $s0 $t0 $t1 Add $v0 $s0 $zero # put the result in register v0 Lw $s0 0($sp) # restore s0 Addi $sp $sp 4 #Free up the stack Jr $ra # control back to the calling procedure

37 ENEE350 Spring07 37 Nested Procedures Int fact (int n) { if (n < 1) return 1 else return (n* fact(n-1)); } FACT: Addi $sp $sp -8 Sw $ra 4($sp) Sw $a0 0($sp) Slti $t0 $a0 1 Beq $t0 $zero L1 Addi $v0 $zero 1 Addi $sp $sp 8 Jr $ra L1: Addi $a0 $a0 -1 Jal FACT #After this instruction completes the result of FACT(N-1) is in register v0 Lw $a0 0($sp) #restore input n Lw $ra 4($sp) #restore return address Addi $sp $sp 8 Mul $v0 $a0 $v0 Jr $ra

38 ENEE350 Spring07 38 Nested Procedures FACT: Addi $sp $sp -8 Sw $ra 4($sp) Sw $a0 0($sp) Slti $t0 $a0 1 Beq $t0 $zero L1 Addi $v0 $zero 1 Addi $sp $sp 8 Jr $ra L1: Addi $a0 $a0 -1 Jal FACT #After this instruction completes the result of FACT(N-1) is in register v0 Lw $a0 0($sp) #restore input n Lw $ra 4($sp) #restore return address Addi $sp $sp 8 Mul $v0 $a0 $v0 Jr $ra


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