3 The Topography of the Ocean Makes no sense without caption in book
4 14.2 Ocean Floor Features Mapping the Ocean Floor The ocean floor regions are the continental margins, the ocean basin floor, and the mid-ocean ridge.
5 14.2 Ocean Floor Features Continental Margins A continental margin is the zone of transition between a continent and the adjacent ocean basin floor. In the Atlantic Ocean, thick layers of undisturbed sediment cover the continental margin. This region has very little volcanic or earthquake activity.
6 Atlantic Continental Margin Makes no sense without caption in book
7 14.2 Ocean Floor Features Continental Margins In the Pacific Ocean, oceanic crust plunges beneath continental crust. This force results in a narrow continental margin that experiences both volcanic activity and earthquakes.
8 14.2 Ocean Floor Features Continental Margins Continental Shelf A continental shelf is the gently sloping submerged surface extending from the shoreline.Continental shelves contain important mineral deposits, large reservoirs of oil and natural gas, and huge sand and gravel deposits.
9 14.2 Ocean Floor Features Continental Margins Continental Slope A continental slope is the steep gradient that leads to the deep-ocean floor and marks the seaward edge of the continental shelf.A submarine canyon is the seaward extension of a valley that was cut on the continental shelf during a time when sea level was lower—a canyon carved into the outer continental shelf, slope, and rise by turbidity currents.A turbidity current is the downslope movement of dense, sediment-laden water created when sand and mud on the continental shelf and slope are dislodged and thrown into suspension.
10 Submarine CanyonsMakes no sense without caption in book
11 14.2 Ocean Floor Features Continental Margins Continental Rise A continental rise is the gently sloping surface at the base of the continental slope.
12 14.2 Ocean Floor Features Ocean Basin Floor The ocean basin floor is the area of the deep-ocean floor between the continental margin and the oceanic ridge. Deep-Ocean TrenchesTrenches form at the sites of plate convergence where one moving plate descends beneath another and plunges back into the mantle.
13 14.2 Ocean Floor Features Ocean Basin Floor Abyssal Plains An abyssal plain is a very level area of the deep-ocean floor, usually lying at the foot of the continental rise.The sediments that make up abyssal plains are carried there by turbidity currents or are deposited as suspended sediment settles out. Seamounts and GuyotsA seamount is an isolated volcanic peak that rises at least 1000 meters above the deep-ocean floor, and a guyot is an eroded, submerged seamount.
14 Abyssal Plain Cross Section Makes no sense without caption in book
15 14.2 Ocean Floor Features Mid-Ocean Ridges A mid-ocean ridge is found near the center of most ocean basins. It is an interconnected system of underwater mountains that have developed on newly formed ocean crust. Seafloor SpreadingSeafloor spreading is the process by which plate tectonics produces new oceanic lithosphere at ocean ridges.New ocean floor is formed at mid-ocean ridges as magma rises between the diverging plates and cools.
16 14.2 Ocean Floor Features Mid-Ocean Ridges Hydrothermal Vents Hydrothermal vents form along mid-ocean ridges. These are zones where mineral-rich water, heated by the hot, newly-formed oceanic crust, escapes through cracks in the oceanic crust into surrounding water.
17 15.1 The Composition of Seawater Salinity15.1 The Composition of Seawater Salinity is the total amount of solid material dissolved in water. Because the proportion of dissolved substances in seawater is such a small number, oceanographers typically express salinity in parts per thousands. Most of the salt in seawater is sodium chloride, common table salt.
18 15.1 The Composition of Seawater Salinity15.1 The Composition of Seawater Sources of Sea Salt• Chemical weathering of rocks on the continents is one source of elements found in seawater.• The second major source of elements found in seawater is from Earth’s interior.
19 Salts in SeawaterMakes no sense without caption in book
20 15.1 The Composition of Seawater Salinity15.1 The Composition of Seawater Processes Affecting Salinity• Processes that decrease salinity:- Precipitation- Sea ice melting- Icebergs melting- Runoff from land• Processes that increase salinity:- Evaporation- Formation of sea ice
21 Natural Processes Affecting Salinity Makes no sense without caption in book
22 15.1 The Composition of Seawater Ocean Temperature Variation15.1 The Composition of Seawater The ocean’s surface water temperature varies with the amount of solar radiation received, which is primarily a function of latitude. Temperature Variation with Depth• The thermocline is the layer of ocean water between about 300 meters and 1000 meters where there is a rapid change of temperature with depth.• The thermocline is a very important structure because it creates a barrier to marine life.
23 Variations in Ocean Surface Temperature Makes no sense without caption in book
24 Variations in Ocean Water Temperature Makes no sense without caption in book
25 15.1 The Composition of Seawater Ocean Density Variation15.1 The Composition of Seawater Density is defined as mass per unit volume. It can be thought of as a measure of how heavy something is for its size. Factors Affecting Seawater Density• Seawater density is influenced by two main factors: salinity and temperature.
26 15.1 The Composition of Seawater Ocean Density Variation15.1 The Composition of Seawater Density Variation with Depth• The pycnocline is the layer of ocean water between about 300 meters and 1000 meters where there is a rapid change of density with depth.
27 Variations in Ocean Water Density Makes no sense without caption in book
28 15.1 The Composition of Seawater Ocean Layering15.1 The Composition of Seawater Oceanographers generally recognize a three-layered structure in most parts of the open ocean: a shallow surface mixed zone, a transition zone, and a deep zone. Surface Zone• Shallow (300 to 450 meters)• Zone of mixing• Sun-warmed zone
29 15.1 The Composition of Seawater Ocean Layering15.1 The Composition of Seawater Transition Zone• Between surface layer and deep zone• Thermocline and pycnocline Deep Zone• Sunlight never reaches this zone.• Temperatures are just a few degrees above freezing.• Constant high-density water
30 Ocean ZonesMakes no sense without caption in book
31 15.2 The Diversity of Ocean Life Classification of Marine Organisms15.2 The Diversity of Ocean Life Marine organisms can be classified according to where they live and how they move. Plankton• Plankton include all organisms—algae, animals, and bacteria—that drift with ocean currents.• Phytoplankton are algal plankton, which are the most important community of primary producers in the ocean.• Zooplankton are animal plankton.
33 15.2 The Diversity of Ocean Life Classification of Marine Organisms15.2 The Diversity of Ocean Life Nekton• Nekton include all animals capable of moving independently of the ocean currents, by swimming or other means of propulsion. Benthos• Benthos describes organisms living on or in the ocean bottom.
36 15.2 The Diversity of Ocean Life Marine Life Zones15.2 The Diversity of Ocean Life Three factors are used to divide the ocean into distinct marine life zones: the availability of sunlight, the distance from shore, and the water depth. Availability of Sunlight• The photic zone is the upper part of the ocean into which sunlight penetrates.
37 15.2 The Diversity of Ocean Life Marine Life Zones15.2 The Diversity of Ocean Life Distance from Shore• The intertidal zone is the strip of land where the land and ocean meet and overlap, or the zone between high and low tides.• The neritic zone is the marine-life zone that extends from the low-tide line out to the shelf break.• The oceanic zone is the marine-life zone beyond the continental shelf.
38 Marine Life ZonesMakes no sense without caption in book
39 15.2 The Diversity of Ocean Life Marine Life Zones15.2 The Diversity of Ocean Life Water Depth• The pelagic zone is open zone of any depth. Animals in this zone swim or float freely.• The benthic zone is the marine-life zone that includes any sea-bottom surface regardless of its distance from shore.• The abyssal zone is a subdivision of the benthic zone characterized by extremely high pressures, low temperatures, low oxygen, few nutrients, and no sunlight.
40 15.2 The Diversity of Ocean Life Marine Life Zones15.2 The Diversity of Ocean Life Hydrothermal Vents• Here seawater seeps into the ocean floor through cracks in the crust.• At some vents, water temperatures of 100oC or higher support communities of organisms found nowhere else in the world.
41 Hydrothermal VentsMakes no sense without caption in book
42 Tube Worms Found Along Hydrothermal Vents Makes no sense without caption in book
43 16.1 Ocean Circulation Surface Circulation Ocean current is the mass of ocean water that flows from one place to another. Surface Currents• Surface currents are movements of water that flow horizontally in the upper part of the ocean’s surface.• Surface currents develop from friction between the ocean and the wind that blows across its surface.
44 Ocean Surface Currents Makes no sense without caption in book
45 16.1 Ocean Circulation Surface Circulation Gyres • Gyres are huge circular-moving current systems that dominate the surfaces of the oceans.• The Coriolis effect is the deflection of currents away from their original course as a result of Earth’s rotation.
46 16.1 Ocean Circulation Surface Circulation Ocean Currents and Climate• When currents from low-latitude regions move into higher latitudes, they transfer heat from warmer to cooler areas on Earth.• As cold water currents travel toward the equator, they help moderate the warm temperatures of adjacent land areas.
47 False-Colored Satellite Image of the Gulf Stream Makes no sense without caption in book
48 16.1 Ocean Circulation Surface Circulation Upwelling • Upwelling is the rise of cold water from deeper layers to replace warmer surface water.• Upwelling brings greater concentrations of dissolved nutrients, such as nitrates and phosphates, to the ocean surface.
49 Effects of UpwellingMakes no sense without caption in book
50 16.1 Ocean Circulation Deep-Ocean Circulation Density Currents • Density currents are vertical currents of ocean water that result from density differences among water masses.• An increase in seawater density can be caused by a decrease in temperature or an increase in salinity.
51 16.1 Ocean Circulation Deep-Ocean Circulation High Latitudes • Most water involved in deep-ocean currents begins in high latitudes at the surface. Evaporation• Density currents can also result from increased salinity of ocean water due to evaporation.
52 16.1 Ocean Circulation Deep-Ocean Circulation A Conveyor Belt • In a simplified model, ocean circulation is similar to a conveyor belt that travels from the Atlantic Ocean, through the Indian and Pacific Oceans, and back again.
53 Conveyor Belt ModelMakes no sense without caption in book
54 Cross Section of the Arctic Ocean Makes no sense without caption in book