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Presentation on theme: "INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, THE INTERNET, AND YOU"— Presentation transcript:

1/3 CHAPTER INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, THE INTERNET, AND YOU The purpose of this book is to help the student become computer literate Competent in computer–related skills The goal is to be valuable immediately to a potential employer Chapter one gives an overview of an information system This system consists of the following: People Procedures Software Hardware Data

2 Lecture Objectives Details about Software Component
Software Classification System Software Details Types of System Software

3 …Lecture Objectives Discuss common features of most software applications Discuss word processors and word processing features Describe spreadsheets and spreadsheet features

4 System Software Handles technical details
Works with end users, application software, and computer hardware Four types of programs Operating system Utilities Device drivers Language translators System software is not a single program but is a collection of programs that handle hundreds of technical details En-users focus on application programs more than the system software, but it is important to understand how system software works

5 System Software: Operating Systems
A collection of programs that handles technical tasks Every computer has an operating system Performs three types of functions Manages computer resources Provides user interface Runs applications Resources coordinate input and outputs such as keyboard, microphones, printers, mouse, storage devices and memory User interface primarily graphical user interface (GUI) use of icons Applications word processing spreadsheets databases supporting multitasking Windows most popular operating system Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows ME, Windows 2002, Windows XP MAC OS – designed to run Macintosh computers Unix – used by powerful microcomputers, servers on the Web, and minicomputers in network environment Linux – non-proprietary operating systems that runs cross platform

6 Features of an Operating System
Booting Features in common with application software Icons Pointers Windows Menus Dialog boxes Booting is the process of starting a computer Warm boot – computer is already on and you restart it without turning off the power Cold boot – starts a computer that has been turned off

7 Categories of Operating Systems
Hundreds of operating systems Three basic categories Embedded – hand-held Network OS – linked computers Stand-alone OS – desktop Operating system is sometimes called the software environment or platform Most are proprietary – owned and licensed by a corporation Non-proprietary – source code is available to the public Called open source Linux is an open source program Page 124

8 More on Operating Systems
OS often called software environment or platform Operating systems commonly used by individuals Windows – most widely used Mac OS – powerful and easy to use UNIX – network; originally designed for Web LINUX – non proprietary; free from the Web Note that LINUX is easier to learn; easily transfer to UNIX UNIX originally designed as cross-platform to help “integrate” the Web Page 125

9 Windows The most popular microcomputer operating system
Comes in a variety of different versions Windows XP is the latest version Windows has over 80 percent of the market More application programs are designed to run under Windows

10 Mac OS An operating system designed to run on Apple computers
Not used as widely as Windows Mac OS X is the latest version First introduced in 1984 Provided one of the first GUIs Powerful and easy to use operating system Mac OS X provides photo quality icons and easy to use menus

11 Linux is a version of UNIX
UNIX and Linux Unix operating system Originally designed to run on minicomputers on a network Used by powerful microcomputers Linux is a version of UNIX Not proprietary Open source UNIX Used by powerful microcomputers and by servers on the Web There are a large number of different versions of UNIX LINUX is one of the most popular and powerful alternatives to the Windows operating system

12 System Software: Utilities
Specialized programs to make computing easier Most essential utilities Troubleshooting Antivirus Uninstall Backup File compression Utilities – specialized programs designed to make computing easier Hard disk crashes Antivirus programs Computer freeze-ups Decrease operation slow-downs

13 Windows Utilities Backup Disk Cleanup Disk Defragmenter
These utilities can be accessed from the System Tools menu Backup – makes a copy of all files or selected files Disk Cleanup Used for troubleshooting Identifies and eliminates unneeded files on the hard disk Disk Defragmenter Locates and eliminates unnecessary fragments Rearranges files and unused space

14 Backup If you backup your files, you can protect your data from the effects of a disk failure

15 Disk Cleanup When you search the Web, a variety of programs and files are saved to your hard drive Use disk clean up to rid of these unnecessary files

16 Disk Defragmenter Disk Defragmenter should be run on your computer often Some en-users run this utility program daily, while some run it once a week

17 Device Drivers Specialized programs that allow communication between a device and the computer Loaded into memory each time When a new device is added, new device drive must be installed Device drivers - programs that work with operating system to allow communication between device(s) and rest of physical system

18 System Software: Device Driver
Instructs the processor about “how to make use of a hardware device?” Application programs forwards any hardware access request (by the user) to the relevant system program. Application Program Device Driver End User A word processing application program sends a document for print to the printer’s driver program.

19 Installing a Printer Driver
A simple process using the Plug-n-Play ability of Microsoft Windows

20 A Look to the Future IBM's Aware Computer
IBM concentrating research efforts on eLiza Handles time-consuming maintenance Autonomic computer Self-maintaining servers Self-repairing Self-protecting Self-updating Computers may be able to fix themselves in the future Autonomic computing is a system that allows machines to run with little human intervention

21 Application Software Details

22 Application Software Basic applications Specialized applications
Called general-purpose or productivity applications Common types Word processors Spreadsheets Database management systems Presentation graphics Specialized applications Not included in the course (slides will be available for self review) Use the application for which it was designed: if you want to process text, use word If need to sort information, use database rather than spreadsheet Can create publications with Word; but presentation software and desktop publishing software are designed to do this type of task easier Specialized Applications Called special purpose applications Common types Graphics Audio/video editors Multimedia creation Web authoring

23 Common Features Graphical User Interface (GUI) Windows Menus Toolbars
Help Common features of software User interface GUI – graphical user interface Mouse and pointer Window Menus Pull-down or drop down menu bars Toolbars Buttons Standard toolbars

24 Common Features of Application Programs
Getting Help To provide the user with the information about all available options. Help navigation should be easy to access. Use of hyperlinks. Use of indexed list. Use of Answer Wizard. Office Assistant

25 Toolbars Commonly used commands Contain shortcuts Most common Standard
Formatting Open Save Print Review the common toolbar commands with students Open File Save Save As Print

26 Classes of Application Software
General Purpose Applications Word Processing Programs Spreadsheet Programs Database Management Systems Presentation Graphics

27 Word Processors Used to create text-based documents
Memos, letters, and faxes Newsletters, manuals, and brochures Three most widely used word processing programs Microsoft Word Corel WordPerfect Lotus WordPro One of the most flexible and widely used software tools One of the first programs used by PC end-users Used by most end-users

28 Word Processor Features
Word Wrap Editing Thesaurus Spelling and grammar checkers Find and Replace Formatting Font and font sizing Character effects Bulleted and numbered lists italics size bold Word wrap – automatically moves text to new line when prior line is full Enter overrides and starts new line Incorrect spelling is identified and alternatives offered Identifies poor grammar and makes suggestions Quickly locate with search or find commands Automatic update of word(s) found with new word colors

29 Creating a Report Report features AutoCorrect Footnote
Header or footer Captions and cross references Tables

30 Example Word Processors
Three Popular Word Processing Programs Microsoft Word Word Perfect Lotus Word Pro

31 Spreadsheet Programs Main Features Organizing Data Manipulating Data
by making use of tables, coloring, 3D effects etc. Manipulating Data By making use of data values in formula & function calculations. Graphing Data By plotting data values on different types of graphs like bar charts, line graphs etc.

32 Spreadsheet Features Workbook files Worksheets Formulas Functions
Analytical graphs or charts What if Analysis Values are numbers used for calculations; labels are letters, numbers, or symbols used to represent text (social security number, phone number) Formulas are calculations user creates Functions are predefined formulas created by spreadsheet What if allows user to create different scenarios for different results probably one of the most powerful tools of spreadsheet

33 Example Spreadsheet Programs
Three Popular Spreadsheet Programs Microsoft Excel Corel Quattro Pro Lotus 1-2-3

34 Creating a Sales Forecast
Features Worksheets Text entries Functions Cells Formulas

35 Creating a Chart Features Titling – makes the chart easier to read
Chart types Chart – is based on a worksheet Data labels Legend


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