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Introduction to Networks and the Internet

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Networks and the Internet"— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Networks and the Internet
CMPE Fall 2005 Lecture 2

2 Announcements Permission codes. Labs. Homework 1.

3 Last class… What’s a computer network? Why networks?
Examples of networks: Postal system. Telephone network. Telephone network: Voice. Real-time.

4 Last class (cont’d) The evolution of the telephone system. Addressing.

5 Today Data networks.

6 Data Communication Model
Network Source Destination

7 Simplified Communication Model

8 Simplified Data Communications Model


10 Components End systems (or hosts), Routers/switches/bridges, and
Links (twisted pair, coaxial cable, fiber, radio, etc.).

11 Components (cont’d) Source Transmitter Transmission System Receiver
generates data to be transmitted Transmitter Converts data into transmittable signals Transmission System Carries data Receiver Converts received signal into data Destination Takes incoming data

12 Key Tasks Transmission. Signal Generation. Synchronization.
Error detection and correction. Addressing and routing End-to-end Recovery. Security.

13 Key Tasks Transmission. Signal Generation. Synchronization.
Error detection and correction. Addressing and routing End-to-end Recovery. Security. Physical Layer Data Link Layer Network Layer Transport Layer Application Layer

14 Networking Point to point communication not usually practical
Devices are too far apart. Large set of devices would need impractical number of connections. Solution is a communications network.

15 Simplified Network Model

16 Connecting End Systems
Dedicated link Multiple access / shared medium

17 Connecting End Systems (cont’d)

18 Shared Communication Infrastructure
A stream of packets from sender to receiver.

19 Types of Data Networks Several ways to classify data networks.
For example, according to “coverage”. Local Area Networks (LANs) typically provide networking capabilities within a building, campus. Typically within 5-mile radius. Wide-Area Networks (WANs) span greater geographic distances (e.g., world-wide). Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs) span more restricted distances, e.g., geographic regions (e.g., Los Nettos network in Southern California, etc.)

20 The Internet Backbone Regional Stub

21 Types of Networks (cont’d)
Classification according to type of connection. Dedicated link. Shared medium (multiple access). Switched point-to-point.

22 Types of Networks (cont’d)
Classification according to topology… What is network topology? The way network elements are interconnected.

23 Network Topologies: Examples
Ring Tree Star Irregular Bus

24 More Concepts… Network protocols. Layering.
Network/protocol architecture.

25 Network Protocols Diplomats use rules, called protocols, as guides for formal interactions. A communication protocol is a set of rules that specify the format and meaning of messages exchanged between computers across a network. A set of related protocols that are designed for compatibility are called protocol suite.

26 Human and Computer Protocols
Hi Got the time? 2:00 <data> time Human Protocol Computer Protocol Web client open connection OK Web server send me data

27 Layering What is it? Building complex systems is hard!
Approach: “Divide and conquer”. Split job into smaller jobs, or layers. Analogy to other fields. Building a house: digging, foundation, framing, etc. Car assembly line… Basic idea: each step dependent on the previous step but does not need to be aware of how the previous step was done.

28 Analogy: Air Travel The problem: air travel.
Decomposed into series of steps: Arrival at airport Check-in Boarding Takeoff Departure from airport Baggage claim Deplane Landing Traveling

29 More on the air travel analogy…
Arrival Check-in Boarding Takeoff Departing airport Departure Baggage claim Deplane Landing Arriving airport Traveling intermediate air traffic sites Airplane routing

30 Protocol Architecture
Task of communication broken up into modules For example file transfer could use three modules File transfer application Communication service module Network access module

31 Simplified File Transfer Architecture

32 A Three Layer Model Application Layer Transport Layer
Network Access Layer

33 Network Access Layer Exchange of data between the computer and the network Sending computer provides address of destination May invoke levels of service Dependent on type of network used (LAN, packet switched etc.)

34 Transport Layer Reliable data exchange
Independent of network being used Independent of application

35 Application Layer Support for different user applications
e.g. , file transfer

36 Layered Protocol Design
Layering model is a solution to the problem of complexity in network protocols The model divides the network protocols into layers, each of which solves part of the network communication problem Each layer has its own protocol! Each layer implements a service to the layer above Relying on services provided by the layers below.

37 Layers Layers are the different components that need to be designed/implemented when designing/implementing networks. Each layer responsible for a set of functions. Top layer relies on services provided by bottom layer. Layer makes it service available to higher layer through an interface.

38 Network/Protocol Architecture
Set of layers, what their functions are, the services each of them provide, and the interfaces between them. A.k.a, protocol architecture or protocol stack. Examples: ISO-OSI 7 layer architecture. TCP-IP architecture (Internet).

39 Protocol Data Units (PDU)
At each layer, protocols are used to communicate. At the source, control information is added to user data at each layer, a.k.a., encapsulation. At the receiver, control information is stripped off at each layer going up the stack, a.k.a., decapsulation.

40 Operation of a Protocol Architecture

41 Example 1: ISO OSI Architecture
ISO: International Standards Organization OSI: Open Systems Interconnection. Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data link Physical

42 Layers of Interest in ISO Model
Layer 7: Application Application-specific protocols (e.g. ftp, http, smtp) Layer 4: Transport Delivery of data between computers (end-to-end). Layer 3: Network Data routing across a network. Layer 2: Data Link Reliable transmission over physical medium. Layer 1: Physical - Transmission of bits between two nodes.

43 Example 2: TCP/IP Architecture
Model employed by the Internet. TCP/IP Application ISO OSI Application Presentation Session Transport Transport Internet Network Network Access Data link Physical Physical

44 TCP/IP Protocol Architecture

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