Department of Criminal Justice California State University - Bakersfield CRJU 330 Race, Ethnicity and Criminal Justice Dr. Abu-Lughod, Reem Ali CORRECTIONS.
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Department of Criminal Justice California State University - Bakersfield CRJU 330 Race, Ethnicity and Criminal Justice Dr. Abu-Lughod, Reem Ali CORRECTIONS V. COLLEGE
n people under correctional supervision has increased over the last 3 decades n But also the number of people attending college has also increased n U.S. has highest rates of both n This phenomenon differs by race, ethnicity and gender n More AA and Hispanics are under some form of correctional supervision than are attending college, less than half as many white males are in prison than are under correctional supervision.
n PRISON POPULATION: AA are overrepresented in prison compared to their number in the general population (they are less than 15% in the population but approx 50% of prison population), also Hispanics (12% of general population but roughly over 16% of prison population), whites (over 70% and 35% of prison population) n Hispanics fastest minority group being incarcerated
n RACIAL AND ETHNIC FEMALE PRISONERS: n Female prison population has increased at a more rapid rate than males from 1990-2000 (108% versus male 77%). AA (make up largest prison population) and Hispanic female prison population in slightly less than their male counterparts but white female prison population is larger than white males. n Looking at federal prison population is a challenge. For example Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) use race and ethnicity combined while the Federal Bureau of Prisons separates the measure of race form ethnicity (page 301) n AA do not appear as overrepresented in federal prisons n Also it depends on the different types of crimes committed
n IMPACT OF THE WAR ON DRUGS n JAIL AND MINORITIES: n There are some awaiting trial while some are denied bail. Although some are convicted of misdemeanors, some convicted felons are given a “split sentence” involving jail followed by probation. Also some are just awaiting transfer to a federal prison n AA are overrepresented in jail compared to their representation in public, and whites are underrepresented. However, whites make up the largest proportion of inmates in jails around the country
PAROLE F WHAT IS IT F TWO FORMS OF PAROLE: 1) discretionary parole: decision made by a parole board to “conditionally release prisoners based on a statutory or administrative determination of eligibility”, 2) mandatory parole: occurs using determinate sentencing statutes. Inmates conditionally released from prison after serving a portion of their original sentence minus any good time earned. F AA comprise a larger population of those released on parole, but parole revocation requires a closer look
u PERSPECTIVES ON RACIAL DISTRIBUTION OF CORRECTIONAL POPULATIONS u Mann argues that there is systematic discrimination u Wilbanks contends that systematic discrimination is a myth
RACE AND RELIGION: u Form of rehabilitation u Black Muslim movement. The most influential one was the Nation of Islam, founded by Elijah Muhammad (born Elijah Poole). It had special appeal to incarcerated black males. u Nation of Islam preached pride and resistance to white oppression
u 1960 the American Correctional Assoc refused to recognize the legitimacy of the Muslim religion because it was a “cult’ that disrupted the prison culture. Prison official were banning the Koran in prison. Lawsuits resulted as a response to that. 1962 the Supreme Ct. in Fulwood v. Clemmer ordered the D.C. Dept. of corrections to stop treating Muslims differently from other religious groups. u Five Percent, AA started in Harlem in 1964, called themselves the nation of Gods (men) and Earths (women) u Asatru in 1972 in Iceland and profess nine noble virtues.
PRISON GANGS: u Texas Syndicate (majority Hispanic) u Texas Mafia (majority white) u Aryan Brotherhood of Texas u Mandingo Warriors (AA, but less organized) u WOMEN IN PRISON