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Collège de France Collège de France.

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Presentation on theme: "Collège de France Collège de France."— Presentation transcript:

1 Collège de France Collège de France

2 France Chile

3 Paris

4 Paris

5 ‘Quartier Latin’ Notre Dame de Paris Sorbonne Collège de France
University Pierre & Marie Curie

6 University Pierre et Marie Curie
Collège de France 1530 University Pierre et Marie Curie 1960

7 Collège de France Françis I Guillaume Budé 1530
Maître de la librairie (National Library) king of France to develop the new spirit of ‘Renaissance humanism’ against the old Sorbonne fonded during the middle ages in 1257

8 greek (2) - hebrew (3) - mathematics (1)
6 royal lecturers greek (2) - hebrew (3) - mathematics (1) (no latin ≠ Sorbonne)

9 1 european 1 international
Year ≈ 50 professors Social sciences = 26 history archeology philosophy litterature economy Physical sciences = 21 biology = 10 mathematics = 3 physics = 4 earth sciences = 2 chemistry = 2 + 1 european 1 international every year

10 Chemistry at the Collège de France
Louis-Jacques Thénard Nicolas Vauquelin Jean Darcet never more than 2 chemists

11 Chemistry at the Collège de France
Inorganic chemistry Organic Chemistry Théophile Jules Pelouze Antoine Jérôme Balard Paul Schützenberger Henri Le Chatellier Camille Matignon Marcelin Berthelot Emile Clément Jungfleish Charles Moureu Marcel Délépine Charles Dufraisse Alain Horeau Jean-Marie Lehn Jean Rouxel Jacques Livage

12 anyone can attend the lectures : no registration, no degree
- lectures : science as it goes (new topic every year) - advanced research Professors I teach everything docet omnia anyone can attend the lectures : no registration, no degree ‘open university ’ about 200 attendees from 20 to 80 years old

13

14 Advanced Materials via Chimie Douce
Jacques Livage Collège de France

15 One of the main differences between men and animals
is that a man is able to make tools homo habilis

16 shaping silex to make a tool
cutted stone polished stone

17 Tools were made from natural materials
wood, bones, stones, ….

18 The discovery of fire was a key point for the evolution of mankind
≈ years The discovery of fire was a key point for the evolution of mankind shape composition

19 The history of man follows the development of materials
stone copper bronze iron

20 Ellingham diagram DG = DH - TDS CuO + C Cu + CO TFe > TCu
2 Cu + O CuO 2 C + O CO DS < 0 DS > 0 Cu Fe T°C DG 2 Fe + O FeO 700 300 DG = DH - TDS CuO + C Cu + CO TFe > TCu CuO is reduced by Carbon above the crossing point

21 Materials processing improves when higher temperatures are reached
Ellingham diagram and human civilization CuO FeO Al2O3 CO DG° Cu Fe Al copper bronze DG = DH - TDS iron aluminium Materials processing improves when higher temperatures are reached

22 Better materials require higher temperatures
Prometheus copper bronze stone iron 25°C 600°C 1100°C T°C

23 Better materials require higher temperatures
Prometheus silicon electronic aluminium aeronautic copper bronze stone iron 25°C 600°C 1100°C T°C

24 Materials chemistry = high temperature chemistry
T > 1000°C melting pot furnace Solid-state chemistry = shake and bake chemistry

25 Formation of biomaterials by organisms living in the sea
Life appeared in the sea Formation of biomaterials by organisms living in the sea from solute species in aqueous solutions

26 Nanostructured materials have been made by micro-organisms
since the Cambrian era ≈ 600 millions years Sea plankton

27 Calcium Carbonate CaCO3 coccolithes

28 Silica - SiO2 radiolaria diatoms

29 Strontium Sulfate SrSO4
Amphilouche elongata Acantharias

30 shells bones teeth

31 Enst Haeckel ( )

32 Atlas des radiolaires (1862)

33 Atlas des radiolaires (1862)

34 Bio-inspired silica biogenic silica
the sol-gel process : chemistry and applications hybrid organic-inorganic materials bio-encapsulation radiolaria

35 Unusual forms of vanadium oxides
from molecular clusters to layered structures vanadium oxide gels and sols vanadium oxide nanotubes and foams


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