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Presentation on theme: "“This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including."— Presentation transcript:


2 “This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission over a network: preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.” Autism Chapter Thirteen

3 “Copyright© Allyn & Bacon 2006” Introduction IDEA (1990) added autism as a disability category to existing law. Autism from the Greek word autos, meaning “self.” Most cases emerge before the age of 2 1/2 and seldom after 5 years of age. Autism results in varying degrees of limitations. Language. Interpersonal skills. Emotional or affective behavior. Intellectual functioning.

4 “Copyright© Allyn & Bacon 2006” Autistic Spectrum Disorders Defined Autistic Spectrum Disorder covers five specific disorders: Autistic disorder or autism Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) Asperger’s syndrome Rett’s syndrome Pervasive developmental disorder – not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) Disorders share similar behavioral traits including problems with: Communication Social skills Patterns of behavior or range of interests

5 “Copyright© Allyn & Bacon 2006” Definition IDEA definition. Developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction. Evident before age 3. Adversely affects educational performance. A broad range of capacity, from severe to mild impairments, has led to the concept of autistic spectrum disorders. Asperger syndrome = a condition that shares certain unusual social interactions and behaviors with autism but typically shows no language delay.

6 “Copyright© Allyn & Bacon 2006” Development of the Field Leo Kanner, 1943, first described autism Asperger Syndrome named for Hans Asperger Early belief in “refrigerator mothers” 1981 – Lorna Wing studied children and adults with Asperger Syndrome

7 “Copyright© Allyn & Bacon 2006” Prevalence About 5 cases per 10,000 births. Rates as high as 60 per 10,000. Variations in prevalence. Differences in definition. Diagnostic criteria. Males outnumbering females from 4 to l to as high as 8 to 1.

8 “Copyright© Allyn & Bacon 2006” Characteristics Infants Unresponsive to physical contact or affection from their parents. Extreme difficulty relating to other people. Children and youth Impaired or delayed facility with language. Approximately half do not develop speech. Echolalia and other inappropriate behavior. Self-stimulation. Flicking their hands in front of their faces repeatedly. Manipulating objects in a repetitive fashion. Engaging in self-injurious behavior. Resistance to change and ritualistic behaviors.

9 “Copyright© Allyn & Bacon 2006” Characteristics Lowered intellectual functioning. 75 percent having measured lQs below 70. High-functioning individuals test at a normal or near-normal level. 10 to 15 percent of those with autism exhibit splinter skills. Learning characteristics. Abilities often develop unevenly, both within and between skill areas. Difficulty with abstract ideas. Educational strengths: Drilling or repetitive practicing. Long-term memory skills. Generalizations are difficult to make.

10 (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004“Copyright© Allyn & Bacon 2006” Positive Autism Characteristics  Some children with autism present some positive characteristics including:  Hyperplexia  Splinter Skills

11 “Copyright© Allyn & Bacon 2006” Typical Educational Placements

12 Causes of Autism No definitive causes have been found Several causes of autism have been ruled out Experts believe that autism is a lifelong neurological disorder Unproven causes suggested include: Environmental toxins Gastrointestinal anomalies Ingredients in the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines Speculation on the causes of autism can be dangerous Parents may not get their children vaccinated which leaves them unprotected against disease and vulnerable to other disabilities

13 “Copyright© Allyn & Bacon 2006” Causation Psychodynamic perspective. Family interactions as causative in autism. Fallen out of favor-lack of research support. Biological factors (genetics). Fragile X syndrome. Established genetic causation. Still no clear and complete explanation. Abnormal development, damage to or impairment of the central nervous system. Brain cell differences. Neurological chemical imbalance. Causes. Maternal infections. Problems during the birth process. Poisoning from toxic agents.

14 “Copyright© Allyn & Bacon 2006” Causation

15 “Copyright© Allyn & Bacon 2006” Interventions Educational Interventions Full range of instructional options. Inclusion to the maximum degree possible. Early intervention. Under IDEA, students with autism are entitled to a free and appropriate public education in the least restrictive environment. Individualized education program (IEP) Functional communication. Social skills. Independence. Use of technology enhancements. Creative, innovative, and positive teachers. Parental participation.

16 “Copyright© Allyn & Bacon 2006” Instructional Practices Priming – familiarize students with academic material ahead of time Discrete trial training – highly specialized approach to teaching skills Prompting – providing physical or verbal cues to specific behaviors

17 “Copyright© Allyn & Bacon 2006” Interventions Psychological and Medical Services Psychodynamic theory of causation Repairing emotional damage Resolving inner conflict. Evaluate its effectiveness? Medical treatment. Medications Promising but mixed results. Should always be used carefully Conjunction with a comprehensive treatment plan

18 “Copyright© Allyn & Bacon 2006” Technology Children with autism do not usually need high-tech assistive technology Technology for these students helps: Simplify and structure the environment through visual supports Increase language through augmentative and assistive communication One validated program that affects language is The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)

19 (c) Allyn & Bacon 2004“Copyright© Allyn & Bacon 2006” Facilitated Communication Facilitated communication is a process in which a facilitator helps the person with autism type or use a keyboard for communication purposes. research has cast doubt on its effectiveness.

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