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Economic Challenges Facing Global and Domestic Business

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1 Economic Challenges Facing Global and Domestic Business
Chapter 3 Economic Challenges Facing Global and Domestic Business

2 Learning Goals Distinguish between micro- economics and macroeconomics. Explain the factors that drive supply and demand. Describe the four types of market structures in a private enterprise system. Compare the three major types of economic systems. Identify and describe the four stages of the business cycle. Explain the factors that affect the stability of a nation’s economy. Discuss how monetary and fiscal policy are used to manage an economy’s performance. Describe the major global economic challenges of the 21st century. 1 5 2 6 3 7 4 8

3 Economics Analysis of the choices people and governments make in allocating resources. Supply: Amount of goods and services for sale at different prices. Demand: Willingness and ability of consumers to purchase goods and services at different prices. How the economy works impacts individuals and businesses. Government decisions about the operation of the country’s economy affects individuals and businesses. In a global economy, individual and business decisions may actually have an international scope.

4 Microeconomics The study of small economic units, such as individual consumers, families, and businesses. Both microeconomics and macroeconomics provide a different view of the economy. Microeconomics are focused on a smaller scale – individuals, families and businesses.

5 Factors Driving Demand
Demand curve - shows the amount of a product buyers will purchase at different prices. Driven by variety of factors like competition, price, larger economic events, and consumer preferences. Supply and demand are at the heart of economic decisions. Economics is a balance between what we want and what we can afford. These decisions drive demand. Demand is driven by factors that influence how people decide to spend their money.

6 A change in overall demand, shifts to a new demand curve.
It is important to note the difference between changes in the quantity demanded at various levels and a change in overall demand. A change in overall demand shifts the curve.

7 Supply Curve Supply curve - shows the relationship between different prices and the quantities that sellers will offer for sale, regardless of demand. Movements along the supply curve are the opposite of movement along the demand curve. While consumers must decide how to spend their money, businesses must decide what products to sell and how. Sellers want to be able to make a profit from what they sell but they must respond to the demand at different price levels. The factors of production: natural resources, capital, human resources and entrepreneurship impact the degree of products and services a firm will supply.

8 Factors Driving Supply
Production plays a central role in determining the overall supply of goods and services. Many of the factors of production and other factors can shift the supply curve.

9 How Supply and Demand Interact
Supply and demand curves meet at the equilibrium price. Buyers and sellers make choices that restore the equilibrium price. Changes affect both supply and demand. Shifts and the supply and demand curves are affected by several factors. The factors often change at the same time and keep changing. Multiple factors can force pressure on price and quantities.

10 Issues For The Entire Society
Macroeconomics Issues For The Entire Society Political, social, and legal environments differ in every country. Economies generally classified in one of three categories: Private enterprise system: capitalism or market economy Planned economies: socialism, communism Mixed economies (combinations of the two) How a country uses its factors of production create a country’s economic system. Every country’s economic system is different. There are three categories of economies.

11 The Private Enterprise System and Competition
Capitalism The Private Enterprise System and Competition Businesses meet needs of consumers and are rewarded through profit. Government favors a hands-off approach. Marketplace competition regulates economic life. Four degrees of competition: Pure competition Monopolistic competition Oligopoly Monopoly The type of competition in an industry is important to note. It dictates the ease of doing business in that industry. Although the United States is based on capitalism, there are some forms of government intervention in the free-market mostly in the form of regulation.

12 Types of Competition The type of competition in an industry and for a company provide important information about prices and how companies compete.

13 Planned Economies Government controls determine business ownership, profits, and resource allocation. Communism Property owned and shared by the community under a strong central government. Adopted in early 20th century by many nations, but government-owned monopolies often suffered from inefficiency. Socialism Government ownership and operation of major industries, such as healthcare or communications. Some private ownership of industry allowed. The writings of Karl Marx in the mid-1800s formed the basis of communist theory. Many countries adopted communist-like economies but found them problematic. Today, communist-like systems only exist in a few countries like North Korea.

14 Mixed Market Economies
Economic systems that combine features of private enterprise and planned economies. Mixture of public and private enterprise can vary widely from country to country. Process of converting a publicly owned company to a private one is called privatization. In the United States, Medicare is a good example of a government run program. France has a blend of socialist and free-enterprise policies which has worked for over 100 years.

15 Comparing Economic Systems
The key difference in comparing economic systems is the ownership of enterprises.

16 Evaluating Economic Performance
Economic system should provide stable business environment and sustained growth. Business decisions and consumer behavior differ at various stages of the business cycle: Prosperity—High consumer confidence, businesses expanding Recession—Cyclical economic contraction lasting for six months or longer Depression—Extended recession Recovery—Declining unemployment, increasing business activity Economic systems should benefit citizens through stable business environment and sustained growth. There are four defined stages of the business cycle. What is the current state of the US economy?

17 Productivity and GDP Productivity: Relationships between the goods and services produced and the inputs needed to produce them. Gross Domestic Product (GDP): Sum of all goods and services produced within a nation’s boundaries; a measure of national productivity. GDP is tracked in the United States by the Bureau of Economic Analysis, a division of the U.S. Department of Commerce. Measures of the economy are constantly reported. Productivity shows the efficiency and strength of an economy. GDP for the United States remains the highest in the world. Click the link to the Bureau of Economic Analysis to view GDP and economic details.

18 Price-Level Changes Inflation is rising prices caused by a combination of excessive consumer demand and increases in the costs of raw materials. Core inflation rate measures inflation minus energy and food prices. Demand-pull inflation - Excessive consumer demand. Cost-push inflation - Rises in costs of the factors of production. Hyperinflation - Soaring consumer prices. Inflation devalues money - people can purchase less with what they have. Deflation is when prices continue to fall. Deflation can cause a weakened economy. More than one factor causes inflation. Inflation is not desired and can prove problematic to an economy. The core inflation rate does not tell the entire story as it does not include energy and food prices. Although deflation provides consumers with low prices, it also dictates a weak enconomy. Discuss how falling prices in the auto industry or housing industry can cause problems as businesses must maintain strong prices.

19 Measuring Price Level Changes
Changing prices are tracked by the Consumer Price Index (CPI). The monthly average change in prices of goods and services. A multitude of items are priced to compile the data included in the “CPI Market Basket” The Bureau of Labor Statistics calculates the CPI monthly along with other economic measures. The consumer price index provides a measure of everyday purchases of households. Click the link to show students the current CPI along with a variety of other economic measures.

20 CPI Market Basket Note the goods that are included in the CPI Market Basket.

21 Employment Levels The unemployment rate is the percentage of total workforce actively seeking work but currently unemployed. Employment dictates the amount of money people have to spend in the economy. People need money to buy goods and services and therefore need jobs to make money. Unemployment is an important measure of economic performance.

22 Managing the Economy’s Performance
Monetary Policy - government actions to increase or decrease the money supply and change banking policy and interest rates to influence consumer spending. Expansionary monetary policy: Efforts to increase the money supply to reduce costs of borrowing and encourage new investment. Restrictive monetary policy: Efforts to decrease the monetary supply to curb rising prices and overexpansion. The Federal Reserve System formulates and implements monetary policy. The Federal Reserve manages monetary policy for the United States. They may use both expansionary or restrictive monetary policy. The Federal Reserve uses these policies to respond to economic measures like unemployment and business cycles. Government uses monetary and fiscal policy to fight unemployment, increase spending, and reduce the duration and severity of economic recession.

23 Fiscal Policy Fiscal Policy - Government actions to influence economic activity through decision about taxes and spending. The Federal Budget - Annual plan for how the government will raise and spend money in the coming year. The primary sources of government funds: taxes, borrowing, fees When the government spends more than the amount of money it raised, there is a budget deficit. When we borrow money to cover the deficit, the national debt is increased. If the government has more money than it spends, there is a budget surplus. National debt is tracked by the Government Accountability Office. The Federal Budget is the government’s expenses and revenue for the coming year. The Federal Budget will dictate fiscal policy regarding the spending and taxing efforts by the government to influence the economy. Unlike individuals, the government can spend more money than is available, which drives the national debt through budget deficits. Discuss the debate regarding international fiscal policy – debt relief for developing countries. Click the link to go to the Government Accountability Office – the budget check for congress.

24 Global Economic Challenges
International Terrorism Shift to a global information economy Aging of the world’s population Growth of India and China straining commodity prices Enhancing competitiveness of every country’s workforce These challenges are growing in importance as the economies become more global and countries are more connected. No country is an economic island in today’s global economy.

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