2 "Learning is not compulsory... neither is survival." - W. Edwards Deming "It is not necessary to change. Survival is not mandatory." - W. Edward Deming
3 Leading -- to Inspire Effort Planning AheadWhat is leadership?How do leaders gain and use power?What are the important leadership traits and behaviors?What can be learned from contingency theories of leadership?What are current trends in leadership development?
4 Can a leader by irrelevant to goal attainment? SubstitutesEmployee characteristicsExperienceSkill level and trainingNeed for autonomyJob CharacteristicsWell defined and routineIntrinsically satisfyingOrganizational CharacteristicsExplicit formalized goalsRigid rules and proceduresCohesive work groups
6 Why do ordinary people achieve great things? 50% of all CEOs of Fortune 500 companies had C average or worse in college.Nearly 75% of all U.S. presidents were in the bottom half of their school classes.50% of all millionaire entrepreneurs never finished college.“The answer is passion. Nothing can take the place of passion in a leader’s life.” Source: John Maxwell
7 “World Class Leaders” Rosabeth Moss Kanter Lesson on leadership…”are often drawn from disparate figures as Jesus Christ, Mahatma Ghandi, Attila the Hun, and Niccolo Machiavelli.”“Many leaders of historical renown and many contemporary leaders of traditional institutions succeeded by focusing on the needs of their own organization and by being the best advocate for the interests of their own group.”“Leaders of the future can no longer afford to maintain insularity. It is simply not an option in an increasingly borderless world of … customer power.”
8 CharismaThe ability to draw people to you.It can be developed.
9 Roadblocks to charisma Pride: Nobody wants to follow a leader who thinks he is better than everyone else.Insecurity: If you are uncomfortable with who you are, others will be, too.Moodiness: If people never know what to expect from you, they stop expecting anything.Perfectionism: People respect the desire for excellence, but dread unrealistic expectations.Cynicism: People don’t want to be rained on by someone who sees clouds around every silver lining.
10 To improve your charisma Change your focus.Play the first impression game.Learn the person’s name.Focus on her interestsShare yourself.“it’s all in the greetings and good-byes.”Dolly Madison
11 Key Characteristics of Charismatic Leaders 1. Idealized goal: Charismatic leaders have vision that proposes a future better than the status quo. The greater the disparity between this idealized goal and the status quo, the more likely that followers will attribute extraordinary vision to the leaders.2. Ability to help others understand the goal: They are able to clarify and state the vision in terms that are understandable to others. This explanation demonstrates an understanding of the followers’ needs and, act as a motivating force.3. Strong convictions about their goal: Charismatic leaders are perceived as being strongly committed, and willing to take on high personal risk, incur high costs, and engage in self-sacrifice to achieve their vision.4. Behavior that is unconventional: They engage in behavior that is perceived as being novel, out of the ordinary, and counter to norms. When successful, these behaviors evoke surprise and admiration in followers.5. Assertive and self-confident: Charismatic leader have complete confidence in their judgement and ability.6. High self-monitoring: Supervisors who can easily adjust their behavior to different situations.7. Appearance as a change agent: They are perceived as agents of radical change rather than as caretakers of the status quo.
12 Becoming a Leader Technical Skills Conceptual Skills Networking Skills Become an expertConceptual SkillsSee the Big PictureNetworking SkillsTake care of your peopleHuman-Relations SkillsCoaching, Facilitating, Supporting
13 Five common Misconceptions about leadership by John Maxwell The Management MythLeading and managing are not the sameThe Entrepreneur MythAll salespeople and entrepreneurs are not leadersThe Knowledge MythIQ does not necessary equate to leadershipThe Pioneer MythBeing out front of the crowd in not leadingThe Position Myth“Its not the position the makes the leader, it the leader that makes the position” Stanley Huffty
14 Points of Self-discipline for leaders by John Maxwell Challenge your excuses“Almost all our faults are more pardonable than the methods we think up to hide them.” Francois La RouchefoucauldRemove rewards until the job is done“Any Business that pays equal rewards to its goof-offs and its eager-beavers sooner or later will find itself with more goof-offs.” Mike DelaneyStay focused on results“Talent without discipline is like an octopus on roller skates. There’s plenty of movement, but you never know if it’s going to be forward, backward, or sideways.” H. Jackson Brown Jr.
15 The Nature of Leadership Leadership and VisionLeadershipprocess of inspiring others to work hard to accomplish important tasksVisionsomeone who has clear sense of futureSchermerhorn - Chapter 13
16 The Nature of Leadership Leadership and PowerPowerability to get someone else to do what you want them toSchermerhorn - Chapter 13
17 The Nature of Leadership Sources of Position PowerRewardinfluence through rewardsCoerciveinfluence through punishmentLegitimateinfluence through authoritySchermerhorn - Chapter 13
18 The Nature of Leadership Sources of Personal PowerExpertinfluence through special expertiseReferentinfluence through identificationSchermerhorn - Chapter 13
19 The Nature of Leadership Turning Power Into InfluencecentralitycriticalityvisibilitySchermerhorn - Chapter 13
20 The Nature of Leadership Turning Power Into Influenceposition power and interpersonal skillsno substitute for expertiselikable personal qualities are very importanteffort and hard work breed respectpersonal behavior must support expressed valuesSchermerhorn - Chapter 13
21 The Nature of Leadership Acceptance Theory of Powerthe other person mustunderstand the directivefeel capable of carrying out the directivefeel the directive is in the organization’s best interestsbelieve the directive is consistent with personal valuesSchermerhorn - Chapter 13
23 The Nature of Leadership Leadership and Empowermentbenefitsallows people to act independentlymanager gains powercreates positive relationshipsbuilds reference powerSchermerhorn - Chapter 13
24 TRAITS Drive Honesty and Moral Character Intelligence Relevant Six Traits of Effective LeadershipDriveHonesty andMoral CharacterIntelligenceTRAITSRelevantKnowledgeSelf-confidenceDesire to InfluenceOthers
25 Leadership Traits and Behaviors Search for Leadership Traitsdrivedesire to leadmotivationhonesty and integrityself-confidenceintelligence and knowledgeflexibilitySchermerhorn - Chapter 13
26 Leadership Traits and Behaviors Focus on Leadership BehaviorsTask and People Concernstask concernplans and defines work to be doneassigns task responsibilitiessets clear work standardsurges task completionmonitors resultsSchermerhorn - Chapter 13
27 Leadership Traits and Behaviors Focus on Leadership BehaviorsTask and People Concernspeople concernacts warm and supportivedevelops social rapport with themrespects their feelingssensitive to their needsshows trust in themSchermerhorn - Chapter 13
28 Leadership Traits and Behaviors Focus on Leadership BehaviorsStylesabdicative or laissez-fairedirective or autocraticsupportive or human relationsparticipative or democraticSchermerhorn - Chapter 13
29 Contingency Approaches to Leadership Fiedler’s Contingency Modelgood leadership depends on a match between leadership and situational demandsleast-preferred coworker scale (LPC)Schermerhorn - Chapter 13
30 Contingency Approaches to Leadership Fiedler’s Contingency ModelDiagnosing situational controlleader-member relations (good or poor)degree of task structure (high or low)amount of position (strong or weak)Schermerhorn - Chapter 13
31 Contingency Approaches to Leadership Fiedler’s Contingency ModelMatching leadership style and situationtask oriented leader is most successfulvery favorable (high control)very unfavorable (low control)relationship oriented leader is most successfulmoderate control situationSchermerhorn - Chapter 13
32 Fiedler’s Leadership Findings SituationalFactors I II III IV V VI VII VIIIRespect forFollowers Good Good Good Good Poor Poor Poor PoorStructuredJobs High High Low Low High High Low LowInfluence overEmploymentProcess Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong WeakPreferredLeaderBehavior Task Task Task People People People Task TaskCentered Behavior
33 Contingency Approaches to Leadership Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership ModelLeaders adjust their styles depending on the readiness of their followersreadinesshow able, willing and confident followers are to perform tasksSchermerhorn - Chapter 13
35 Developments in Organization Structures Network Structurescentral core that is linked through networks of relationships with outside suppliers of essential servicesboundaryless organizationsvirtual corporationsSchermerhorn - Chapter 13
36 Contingency Approaches to Leadership Matching Hersey-Blanchard Leadership Styles to Follower ReadinessDelegating = high readinessParticipating = moderate to high readinessSelling = low to moderate readinessTelling = low readinessSchermerhorn - Chapter 13
38 Contingency Approaches to Leadership Substitutes for LeadershipSubordinate characteristicsTask characteristicsOrganizational characteristicsSchermerhorn - Chapter 13
39 Contingency Approaches to Leadership Vroom-Jago Leader-Participation TheoryChoosing the best decision-making methodauthorityconsultativegroupSchermerhorn - Chapter 13
40 Contingency Approaches to Leadership Vroom-Jago Leader-Participation TheoryEffective Leadershipknow when each decision method is bestbe able to implement wellSchermerhorn - Chapter 13
41 Contingency Approaches to Leadership Vroom-Jago Leader-Participation TheoryUse group-oriented decision-making whenleaders lack sufficient informationproblem is unclearacceptance of decision by others is importantadequate time is availableSchermerhorn - Chapter 13
42 Contingency Approaches to Leadership Vroom-Jago Leader-Participation TheoryUse authority-oriented decision-making whenleaders have expertise to solve problemleader is confident and capable of acting aloneothers are likely to accept the decisionlittle or no time available for discussionSchermerhorn - Chapter 13
43 Trends in Leadership Development What is Transformational Leadership?Use of charisma and related qualities to raise aspirations and shift people and organizational systems into new high-performance patternsSchermerhorn - Chapter 13
44 Trends in Leadership Development Transactional LeadershipUse of tasks, rewards and structures to help followers meet their needs while working to accomplish organizational objectivesSchermerhorn - Chapter 13
45 Trends in Leadership Development Qualities of Transformational Leadersvisioncharismasymbolismempowermentintellectual stimulationintegritySchermerhorn - Chapter 13
46 Directions in Leadership Development Emotional Intelligence (EI)ability to understand and deal well with emotions at workthreshold capabilities are technical or knowledge-based skillsexcellence in leadership depends on EIcan be learned
47 5 Components of EI Self-awareness Self-regulation Motivation Empathy Social skill
49 Trends in Leadership Development Gender and LeadershipWomen may be more prone to democratic and participative behaviorsMen may be more transactionalSchermerhorn - Chapter 13
50 Trends in Leadership Development “Good Old-Fashioned” Leadershipdefine and establish a sense of missionaccept leadership as responsibility rather than rankearn and keep trust of othersSchermerhorn - Chapter 13
51 Trends in Leadership Development Ethical Aspects of Leadershipresponsibility to set high ethical standardsobligation to supply necessary spark to awaken potentialhigh expectations tend to generate high performanceSchermerhorn - Chapter 13
52 “The first key to greatness is to be in reality what we appear to be.” Socrates
53 Second Tier Leaders What is a 2nd tier leader? What behaviors are required that are different from 1st tier leaders?What are the career implications for 2nd tier leaders?If successful?If failed?
54 “The secret of success in life is for a man to be ready for his time when it comes.” Benjamin Disraeli