The Communication Process Encoding –The sender’s process of putting the message into a form that the receiver will understand. Communication Channels –The three primary channels are oral, nonverbal, and written. Decoding –The receiver’s process of translating the message into a meaningful form.
A Model of the Communication Process SENDER RECEIVER Message encoded Message decoded Message Feedback Feedback decoded “Noise”: culture, values, traditions. Feedback encoded Frame of Reference
The Importance of Feedback The Importance of Feedback When Face to Face: Ask questions to determine if you have been understood. Ask the receiver to restate what you have said. Watch for signs of understanding – nodding; frowning. When Face to Face: Ask questions to determine if you have been understood. Ask the receiver to restate what you have said. Watch for signs of understanding – nodding; frowning. Not Face to Face: Request a written answer to a written message. Ask when the reply will be coming. Persist until a response is received from the receiver. Not Face to Face: Request a written answer to a written message. Ask when the reply will be coming. Persist until a response is received from the receiver.
Barriers to Communication Barriers to Communication SensesSenses SemanticsSemantics EmotionsEmotions ExpectationsExpectations PersonalityPersonality SensesSenses SemanticsSemantics EmotionsEmotions ExpectationsExpectations PersonalityPersonality PrejudicePrejudice ChangesChanges Poor organizationPoor organization Info OverloadInfo Overload Poor ListeningPoor Listening PrejudicePrejudice ChangesChanges Poor organizationPoor organization Info OverloadInfo Overload Poor ListeningPoor Listening
Organizational Communication Vertical Communication –The flow of information both downward and upward through the organizational chain of command. Horizontal Communication –The flow of information between colleagues and peers. Grapevine –The flow of information in any direction throughout the organization.
Organizational Communication: Formal Communication Exhibit 11–1a
Organizational Communication: Informal Communication Exhibit 11–1b
Oral Communications Advantages –Easier –Faster –Encourages feedback Disadvantages –Less accurate –Leaves no permanent record
Nonverbal Communications Nonverbal Communication –Includes messages sent without words. –Setting (physical surroundings) –Body language Facial expressions Vocal quality (how said, not what said) Gestures Posture –Disadvantage Can be misinterpreted by receiver.
Written Communications Advantages –More accurate –Provides a permanent record Disadvantages –Takes longer –Hinders feedback
Selecting the Message Transmission Channel Media Richness –The amount of information and meaning conveyed through a channel. Oral channels (e.g., face-to-face) are the richest channels, useful for sending difficult and unusual messages. Written channels are less rich, useful for simple and routine messages. Combined channels are best used for important messages that must be attended to.
Sending Messages Planning the Message –What is the goal of the message? –Who should receive the message? –How should the message be sent? –When should the message be sent? –Where should the message be sent?
The Face-to-Face Message-Sending Process Model 11–1 1.Develop rapport. 2.State your communication objective. 3.Transmit your message. 4. Check receiver’s understanding. 5.Get a commitment and follow up.
Checking Understanding: Feedback Feedback –The process of verifying messages. Paraphrasing –The process of having the receiver restate the message in his or her own words. Feedback Problems –Receivers feel ignorant. –Receivers are ignorant. –Receivers are reluctant to point out sender’s ignorance.
Checking Understanding: Feedback How to Get Feedback –Be open to feedback There are no dumb questions. –Be aware of nonverbal communication Make sure your nonverbal communication encourages feedback. –Ask questions Don’t take action before checking on message. –Use paraphrasing Check the receiver’s interpretation of your message.
Response Styles Advising –Providing evaluation, personal opinion, direction, or instructions. Diverting –Switching the focus of the communication. Probing –Asking the sender for more information. Reassuring –Responding to reduce the intensity of emotions. Reflecting –Paraphrasing the message to indicate acceptance and understanding.
Calming an Emotional Person Empathic Listening –The ability to understand and relate to another’s situation and feelings. Dealing with Emotional People –Don’t make statements putting the person down. –Do make reflective empathic responses. –Paraphrase feelings.
NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION Movements, gestures, body positions, vocal qualities and a variety of unspoken signals sent by people, often in conjunction with verbal messages
A PPEARANCE A ND G ROOMING Hygiene Clothing and Accessories
S PATIAL C UES Intimate distance 0-18” Personal distance 18”-4’ Social/work distance 4’-12’ Public distance 12’ or more
E NVIRONMENTAL C UES Clutter Cleanliness Offensive items
M ISCELLANEOUS C UES Personal habits Time allocation and attention Follow-through Etiquette and manners Color
R OLE O F G ENDER Communication differences Approach relationships differently Brains develop at different rates
I MPACT O F C ULTURE Personal knowledge & growth increases Awareness of similarities important Must learn about cultures, habits, values & beliefs Requires action plan for learning about other cultures & people
U NPRODUCTIVE B EHAVIORS Unprofessional handshake Fidgeting Pointing finger or object Raising eyebrow Peering over glasses Crossing arms Holding hands near mouth
I MPROVING N ONVERBAL C OMMUNICATION Seek out nonverbal cues Confirm perceptions Seek clarifying feedback Analyze interpretations of cues