1 CS 502: Computing Methods for Digital Libraries Lecture 20 Multimedia digital libraries.
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1 CS 502: Computing Methods for Digital Libraries Lecture 20 Multimedia digital libraries
2 Administration Discussion classes attend! speak! Assignment 3 email messages have been forwarded
3 Harvest Gatherer Program that collects indexing information from digital library collections. Most effective when they are installed on the same system as the collections. Allows indexes to include materials with restricted access. Broker Builds a combined index with information about many collections. (Also called a union catalog.)
4 Harvest Repositories Search Systems Users Metadata Gatherer
5 Harvest Gatherers need not be restricted to web pages or any specific format can incorporate dictionaries or lexicons for specialized topic areas combine the benefits of local indexing with a central index for users particularly effective for federated digital libraries. In a federation, each library can run its own gatherer and transmit indexing information to brokers that build consolidated indexes for the entire library.
6 Multimedia 1: Geospatial Information Example: Alexandria Digital Library at the University of California, Santa Barbara Funded by the NSF Digital Libraries Initiative from 1994. Collections include any data referenced by a geographical footprint. terrestrial maps, aerial and satellite photographs, astronomical maps, databases, related textual information Program of research with practical implementation at the university's map library
8 Computer systems and user interfaces Computer systems Digitized maps and geospatial information -- large files Wavelets provide multi-level decomposition of image first level is a small coarse image extra levels provide greater detail User interfaces Small size of computer displays Slow performance of Internet in delivering large files retain state throughout a session
9 Alexandria: information discovery Metadata for information discovery Coverage: geographical area covered, such as the city of Santa Barbara or the Pacific Ocean. Scope: varieties of information, such as topographical features, political boundaries, or population density. Latitude and longitude provide basic metadata for maps and for geographical features.
10 Gazetteer Gazetteer: database and a set of procedures that translate representations of geospatial references: place names, geographic features, coordinates postal codes, census tracts Search engine tailored to peculiarities of searching for place names. Research is making steady progress at feature extraction, using automatic programs to identify objects in aerial photographs or printed maps -- topic for long-term research.
11 Multimedia 2: video segmentation Example: Informedia research program at Carnegie Mellon University objects in library -- broadcast news and documentary programs more than one thousand hours of digitized video, Cable Network News, British Open University, WQED television automatically broken into short segments of video, such as the individual items in a news broadcast automatic methods for extracting information from the video -- populate the library with minimal human intervention
13 Automatic processing Video skimming: automatic methods to extract important words and images from the video -- conveys the essence of the full video segment Text extraction: speech recognition from sound track closed captions text on screen
14 Multi-model information discovery The multi-modal approach to information retrieval Computer programs to analyze video materials for clues e.g., changes of scene methods from artificial intelligence, e.g., speech recognition, natural language processing, image recognition. analyze of video track, sound track, closed captioning if present, any other information. Each mode gives imperfect information but combining the evidence from all can be effective.
15 Combined browsing and searching Browsing see what books are stored together begin with one item and then move to the items that it refers to -- citations or hyperlinks Measures of effectiveness evaluating the effectiveness of information retrieval in an interactive session with the user in the loop -- unsolved Overall thorough information discovery hard except in limited circumstances most users find most of what they want