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DATA ANALYSIS I MKT525

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Plan of analysis What decision must be made? What are research objectives? What do you have to know to reach those objectives? Now create plan of analysis

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SELECTING DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE How many variables will be analyzed at a time? –One variable - univariate analysis –Two variables - bivariate analysis –More than two variables - multivariate analysis

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Descriptive Measures Central tendency –Mode –Median –Mean Some Dispersion measures –Range –Standard deviation

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Data Set

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Inferential Statistics Goal = make inferences about population from sample results Mean of sample usually not = population mean Mean of sampling distribution estimates population mean Variance of sampling distribution depends on population variance, sample size, sample design

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Inferential Statistics -2 We only have one sample We can say, based on sample, and with a certain degree of confidence, population mean falls within a certain range of values. Confidence level Standard error of the mean Confidence interval

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Inferential Statistics-3 Hypothesis –Null hypothesis = Ho –Alternative hypothesis = H 1 If Ho not rejected, no action taken that is different from current policy - status quo. If Ho rejected, action taken which is different from current policy.

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Type I and Type II Errors Type I error: Reject Ho when it is really true. –Probability = alpha = level of statistical significance Type II error: Do not reject Ho when it is really false. –Probability = beta - more difficult to control. Consider which error is more important to keep low.

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Issue 1: is sample mean different from a criterion mean? t = sample mean - criterion mean standard error of mean What is sample? Population? What is null hypothesis? Alternative? What is conclusion?

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Issue 2: Is a sample proportion different from a criterion proportion? z = sample proportion - criterion proportion standard error of proportion s.e. of prop. = square root of: p(1-p) n What is sample? Population? What is null hypothesis? Alternative? What is conclusion?

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Issue 3: Is a frequency distribution different from a criterion distribution? Chi square = Sum (observed - expected) 2 expected What is sample? Population? What is null hypothesis? Alternative? What is conclusion?

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