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Detailed E&M Coding Course

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1 Detailed E&M Coding Course
Click on these links to go directly to the topic: Common E&M categories Consultations Levels of service History Exam Medical decision making Documentation requirements at various levels Time-based services Modifier 25 Clinical examples at various E&M levels UNC SOM Compliance

2 E&M Services Classifications – most common
Outpatient - clinic visits Consult New Established Inpatient – hospital visits Initial Subsequent Consult, initial and follow-up

3 Medicare Outpatient E & M
Approximate Allowables Outpatient Visit Category CPT Code Level Established New Consultation 1 $18.90 $32.00 $44.20 2 $34.00 $57.90 $81.90 3 $47.40 $86.50 $109.00 4 $74.50 $123.20 $155.00 5 $109.40 $201.00

4 New or Established Patient
New patient: has not received any professional evaluation and management (E&M) services from the physician or another physician of the same specialty who belongs to the same group practice within the past three years Established patient: has received an E&M service from group within three years

5 Consultations A Consultation is an E&M service provided by a physician whose opinion and advice is requested by another physician or appropriate source Consultations should be viewed as a three-part cycle (1) a request is made (2) an evaluation is undertaken and (3) an opinion is rendered and sent to the requesting physician. The consultant may initiate diagnostic and/or therapeutic services at the same visit

6 Consultations A patient who is self-referred or “referred for management of a condition” is a new or established patient, not a consult If ongoing care of a particular condition is assumed in advance, service is not a consult but a new/est. patient visit

7 Consult Documentation Requirements
Written or verbal request must be documented. As an example: “Mr. Jones is seen in consultation at the request of Dr. Smith for evaluation of worsening cough.” Consultant’s opinion must be communicated by written report to the requesting physician

8 Levels of Service

9 Defining Levels of Service
History Physical Examination Medical Decision Making Other Considerations Time Counseling Coordination of Care Nature of Presenting Problem

10 History – Three Parts History of Present Illness Review of Systems Past, Family and Social History

11 History of the Present Illness (HPI)
Location Quality Severity Duration Timing Context Modifying factors Associated signs and symptoms

12 Two Levels of HPI Brief = 1-3 elements described Extended = 4+ elements described OR Status of at least 3 chronic or inactive conditions “Mr. Peters has for two weeks felt a sharp pain in his left shoulder when he raises his arm.” Duration Quality Location Context

13 Review of Systems (ROS)
An inventory of body systems obtained through questions seeking to identify signs and/or symptoms which the patient has or has had. Constitutional symptoms (e.g. fever, weight loss) Eyes Ears, Nose, Mouth, Throat Cardiovascular Respiratory Gastrointestinal Genitourinary Musculoskeletal Integumentary (including breasts) Neurological Psychiatric Endocrine Hematologic/Lymphatic Allergic/Immunologic

14 Review of Systems (ROS)
Three levels of ROS: Problem Pertinent (1 system) Extended (2-9) Complete (at least 10) May be completed by patient, nurse or other staff Pertinent positives and negatives must be referred to in the note May use “all other systems negative” or “the balance of ten systems reviewed is negative” indicating a complete ROS was done If unable to obtain, document why

15 Past, Family and Social History (PFSH)
Current medications Prior illnesses/injuries Dietary status Operations/hospitalizations Allergies Family Health status or cause of death of siblings/parents Hereditary/high risk diseases Diseases related to the chief complaint, HPI, ROS Social Living arrangements Marital status Drug or tobacco use Occupational/educational history

16 Two Levels of PFSH Pertinent: one of the three areas Complete: document specific item from all three areas Complete for established patients: two of three areas is sufficient

17 Four Levels of History Problem focused Brief HPI Expanded problem focused Brief HPI, Pertinent ROS, no PFSH Detailed Extended HPI and ROS, 1 PFSH element Comprehensive Extended HPI, Complete ROS and PFSH

18 History Example 2 y/o male c/o vomiting/diarrhea & 2 day fever. Diarrhea watery for 4 days, temp Vomited 2X this a.m.,  appetite. Started Pedialyte 3 days ago. Drank several oz Pedialyte this a.m. Ø rhinorrhea, Ø cough, Ø daycare

19 History Example 2 y/o male c/o vomiting/diarrhea & 2 day fever. Diarrhea watery for 4 days, temp Vomited 2X this a.m.  appetite. Started Pedialyte 3 days ago. Drank several oz Pedialyte this a.m. Ø rhinorrhea, Ø cough, Ø daycare bchief complaint b HPI duration b HPI quality b HPI severity b HPI modifying factors

20 Ø rhinorrhea, Ø cough, Ø daycare
History Example 2 y/o male c/o vomiting/diarrhea & 2 day fever. Diarrhea watery for 4 days, temp Vomited 2X this a.m.  appetite. Started Pedialyte 3 days ago. Drank several oz Pedialyte this a.m. Ø rhinorrhea, Ø cough, Ø daycare b ROS GI b ROS EENT b ROS Resp b PFSH Social

21 History Documented in Example
Chief Complaint Always required HPI, 4 descriptors Extended ROS, 4 systems Extended PFSH, social (1) Pertinent Detailed = Outpatient established E&M 99214 new patient or 99203, 99243

22 Documenting the Physical Exam
A general multi-system exam or any single organ system exam may be performed by any provider. The type and content are selected by the provider depending upon medical necessity. Note specific abnormal & relevant negative findings of the affected or symptomatic area(s)--“abnormal” is insufficient. Describe abnormal or unexpected findings of asymptomatic areas or systems. Noting “negative” or “normal” is sufficient to document normal findings in unaffected areas.

23 The Physical Exam Component
The following slides describe two methods of determining the level of physical exam: 1995 Guidelines and 1997 Guidelines. Either may be used. There is no need to satisfy the requirements of both methods.

24 Physical Exam Guidelines (1995)
Problem Focused A limited examination of the affected body area or organ system Expanded Problem Focused A limited examination of the affected body area or organ system and other symptomatic or related organ system(s) Detailed An extended examination of the affected body area(s) and other symptomatic or related organ systems Comprehensive A general multi-system examination (8 or more of the 12 systems) or complete examination of a single organ system

25 General Multi-system Exam (1997)
See next page for the list of multi-system exam elements referred to below Problem Focused Documentation of 1-5 elements Expanded Problem Focused At least 6 elements One or more organ/body system Detailed at least 6 organ/body system covered for each system/area, at least 2 elements noted OR At least 12 elements total 2 or more organ/body systems Comprehensive At least nine organ systems/areas covered For each, all elements should be performed Document at least 2 elements in each system/area

26 General Multi-system Examination (1997 Guidelines)

27 Single Organ System Examination
Requirements for elements documented similar to 1997 multi-system Single organ system exams for the following: Eyes Ears, Nose, Mouth, and Throat Cardiovascular Respiratory Genitourinary Musculoskeletal Skin Neurological Psychiatric Hematologic/Lymphatic/Immunologic

28 Medical Decision Making (MDM)
Based on any two of the following: Number of Diagnostic and/or Management Options Amount and Complexity of Data Risk

29 Medical Decision Making Elements
Diagnostic and/or management options (max = 4 “points”) Self-limited, minor (1 ea) Established problem stable, improved (1 ea) Established problem worsening (2 ea) New problem, no add’l workup planned (3 ea) New problem, add’l workup planned (4 ea)

30 Medical Decision Making Elements
Amount & complexity of data (max = 4 points) Review/order of clinical lab, radiologic study, other non-invasive diagnostic study (1 ea type) Discussion of diag study w/interpreting phys. (1) Independent review of diagnostic study (2) Decision to obtain old records or get data from source other than patient. (1) Review/summary old med records or gathering data from source other than patient (2)

31 Medical Decision Making Elements
Risk Presenting problem Diagnostic procedures Management options Choose the highest level of associated risk expressed in any one of these three categories on the table on the next page.

32 Table of Risk Risk Level Presenting Problem(s)
Diagnostic Procedure(s) Ordered Management Options Selected Minimal One self-limited or minor problem, eg, cold, insect bite, tinea corporis Laboratory tests requiring venipuncture •Chest x-rays •EKG/EEG •Urinalysis •Ultrasound, eg, echocardiography •KOH prep Rest •Gargles •Elastic bandages •Superficial dressings Low Two or more self-limited or minor problems •One stable chronic illness, eg, well controlled hypertension, non-insulin dependent diabetes, cataract, BPH •Acute uncomplicated illness or injury, eg, cystitis, allergic rhinitis, simple sprain Physiologic tests not under stress, eg, pulmonary function tests •Non-cardiovascular imaging studies with contrast, eg, barium enema •Superficial needle biopsies •Clinical laboratory tests requiring arterial puncture •Skin biopsies Over-the-counter drugs •Minor surgery with no identified risk factors •Physical therapy •Occupational therapy •IV fluids without additives Moderate One or more chronic illnesses with mild exacerbation, progression, or side effects of treatment Two or more stable chronic illnesses Undiagnosed new problem with uncertain prognosis, eg, lump in breast Acute illness with systemic symptoms, eg, pyelonephritis, pneumonitis, colitis Acute complicated injury, eg, head injury with brief loss of consciousness Diagnostic endoscopies with no identified risk factors •Deep needle or incisional biopsy •Cardiovascular imaging studies with contrast and no identified risk factors, eg, arteriogram, cardiac catheterization •Obtain fluid from body cavity, eg lumbar puncture, thoracentesis, culdocentesis Minor surgery with identified risk factors •Elective major surgery (open, percutaneous or endoscopic) with no identified risk factors •Prescription drug management •Therapeutic nuclear medicine •IV fluids with additives •Closed treatment of fracture or dislocation without manipulation High One or more chronic illnesses with severe exacerbation, progression, or side effects of treatment •Acute or chronic illnesses or injuries that pose a threat to life or bodily function, eg, multiple trauma, acute MI, pulmonary embolus, severe respiratory distress, progressive severe rheumatoid arthritis, psychiatric illness with potential threat to self or others, peritonitis, acute renal failure •An abrupt change in neurologic status, eg, seizure, TIA, weakness, sensory loss Cardiovascular imaging studies with contrast with identified risk factors •Cardiac electrophysiological tests •Diagnostic Endoscopies with identified risk factors •Discography Elective major surgery (open, percutaneous or endoscopic) with identified risk factors •Emergency major surgery (open, percutaneous or endoscopic) •Parenteral controlled substances •Drug therapy requiring intensive monitoring for toxicity •Decision not to resuscitate or to de-escalate care because of poor prognosis

33 Level of Medical Decision Making Documented
Four levels: Straightforward Low complexity Moderate complexity High complexity Two of the three areas: dx options, amount of data, risk establish the MDM level Diag/mgt options 0-1 2 3 4 Amount of data Overall risk Minimal Low Moderate High Level of MDM Strghtfwd

34 Note on Medical Decision Making Level
Co-morbidities and underlying diseases, in and of themselves, are not considered in selecting a level of E/M services unless their presence significantly increases the complexity of the medical decision making.

35 New Outpatient Visits/Consults
Level History Exam MDM 99201, 99241 Problem Focused (PF) PF Straightforward 99202, 99242 Expanded prob focused (EPF) EPF SF 99203, 99243 Detailed Low 99204, 99244 Compr. Moderate 99205, 99245 High

36 Established Outpatient Visits
Level History Exam MDM 99211 N/A 99212 PF SF 99213 EPF Low 99214 Detailed Moderate 99215 Compr. High

37 Initial Hospital/Observation
Level History Exam MDM 99221, 99218 Detailed SF/Low 99222, 99219 Compr. Moderate 99223, 99220 High

38 Subsequent Hospital and Follow-up Consults
Level History Exam MDM 99231, 99261 PF SF/LOW 99232, 99262 EPF Moderate 99233, 99263 Detailed High

39 Documenting Time-based Coding
If time spent counseling and/or coordinating care is more than 50% of encounter, use time May count TP face-to-face time only for OP, coordination, time on floor for IP Document amount of time counseling and total time spent on encounter and describe counseling, coordination activities Document only minimal history, exam OR medical decision making

40 Time as the Controlling Factor
Established patient New patient, Consultation Approximate time 99211 Nurse visit, 5 supv 99212 99201, 99241 10 / 10 / 15 99213 99202, 99242 15 / 20 / 30 99214 99203, 99243 25 / 30 / 40 99215 99204, 99244 40 / 45 / 60 99205, 99245 60 / 80

41 Examples of Time-based Codes
Critical care Other E&M visits where >50% counseling Individual psychotherapy codes (non E&M) Prolonged services TP presence or concurrent observation for entirety of time-based services Resident note may support level and type service, add’l TP summary note to document involvement

42 Modifier 25 Append a modifier 25 to an E&M code if a significant, separately identifiable E&M service is performed by the same physician on the same day of a procedure or other service. The patient’s condition must require E&M services above and beyond what would normally be performed in the provision of the procedure. The necessity for the E&M service may be prompted by the same diagnosis as the procedure. A new patient E&M service is considered separate from the same day surgery or procedure—no 25 modifier needed.

43 Modifier 25 For an established patient, if the E&M service resulted in the initial decision to perform a minor procedure (0-10 days global period) on the same day and medical necessity indicates an E&M service beyond what is considered normal protocol for the procedure, the 25 modifier is appropriate. To determine the correct level of E&M service to submit, identify services unrelated to the procedure and use as E&M elements. Clearly mark the encounter form to indicate that a 25 modifier should be attached to the E&M.

44 Clinical Examples—Primary Care
New patient 99204 Initial office visit for a 17-yr-old female with depression Initial office visit for initial evaluation of a 63-yr-old male with chest pain on exertion Initial office visit for evaluation of 70-yr-old patient with recent onset of episodic confusion.

45 Clinical Examples—Primary Care
Established patient 99213 Office visit for a 62-yr-old female, established patient, for follow-up for stable cirrhosis of the liver. Office visit for a 60-yr-old, established patient, with chronic essential hypertension on multiple drug regimen, for blood pressure check. Office visit for a 50-yr-old female, established patient, with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and stable coronary artery disease, for monitoring.

46 Clinical Examples—Primary Care
Established Patient 99214 Office visit for a 28-yr-old male, established patient, with regional enteritis, diarrhea, and low-grade fever. Office visit for a 28-yr-old female, established patient, with right lower quadrant abdominal pain, fever, and anorexia. Office visit with 50-yr-old female, established patient, diabetic, blood sugar controlled by diet; complains of frequency of urination and weight loss, blood sugar of 320 and negative ketones of dipstick.

47 Clinical Examples—Primary Care
Established Patient 99215 Office visit with 30-yr-old, est. patient, for 3- month history of fatigue, weight loss, intermittent fever, and presenting with diffuse adenopathy and splenomegaly. Office visit for evaluation of recent onset syncopal attacks in a 70-yr-old woman, est. patient. Office visit for a 70-yr-old female, est. patient, with diabetes mellitus and hypertension, presenting with a two-month history of increasing confusion, agitation and short-term memory loss.

48 Where To Get Help
UNC P&A Professional Charges School of Medicine Compliance Office Confidential Help Line AMA CPT Manual

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