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Basic Statistical Review

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1 Basic Statistical Review
EPS 625 – Intermediate Statistics Robert A. Horn, Ph.D.

2 The Decision Tree

3 Key Terms Sample Population Sampling Statistic
Representative of the population Commonly symbolized with Roman Letters Population Parameter Commonly symbolized with Greek Letters Sampling Random Sample Random Assignment

4 Measurement Scales

5 Key Terms Variables Categorical (Nominal – Ordinal)
Discrete Qualitative Frequency Continuous (Interval – Ratio) Quantitative Measurement

6 Key Terms Independent (Predictor) Variable
Active (experimental) Attribute (measured) Dependent (Criterion) Variable Extraneous Variable Confounding Third Variable

7 Key Terms Descriptive Statistics Inferential Statistics
Measures of Central Tendency Mean, Median, Mode Measures of Variability Range, Standard Deviation, Variance Inferential Statistics Parametric Nonparametric

8 Frequency Distributions

9 Graphing Data – Constructing a Graph

10 Distorting Data Through Graphing

11 Bar Graphs (Categorical Data)

12 Histograms (Continuous Data)

13 Stem-and-Leaf Displays

14 Boxplots

15 Describing Distributions
Symmetric (Normal Distribution) Modality Unimodal, Bi-Modal, Multi (tri)-Modal Skewness Negative, Normal (Symmetrical), Positive Kurtosis Platykurtic, Mesokurtic (Normal), Leptokurtic Linearity Linear or Curvilinear

16 Describing Distributions

17 Describing Distributions

18 Describing Distributions

19 The Normal Distribution

20 Summation Notation ()
One of the most common symbols in statistics is the uppercase Greek letter sigma, (), which is the standard notation for summation. It is readily translated as “add up, or sum, what follows.” The general rule, which always applies, is to perform operations within parentheses before performing operations outside parentheses.

21 Common Statistical Symbols
X A Raw Score Mean of a Sample  Mean of a Population s Standard Deviation of a Sample  Standard Deviation of a Population s 2 Variance of a Sample 2 Variance of a Population

22 Key Terms Probability Confidence Intervals Effect Size Standard Scores
 = Level of Significance p = Probability (Sig.) Confidence Intervals Effect Size d Family r Family Standard Scores z

23 Hypothesis Testing

24 Non-Directional (two-tailed)

25 Directional (one-tailed – negative end)

26 Directional (one-tailed – positive end)

27 Statistical Results and APA
t(9) = 5.08, p < .05, d = 1.61 F(2, 57) = 9.75, p < .01, 2 = .42 | = Single Space NOT t(9)=5.08,p<.05,d=1.61 F(2,57)=9.75,p<.01,2=.42

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