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**Basic Statistical Review**

EPS 625 – Intermediate Statistics Robert A. Horn, Ph.D.

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The Decision Tree

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**Key Terms Sample Population Sampling Statistic**

Representative of the population Commonly symbolized with Roman Letters Population Parameter Commonly symbolized with Greek Letters Sampling Random Sample Random Assignment

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Measurement Scales

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**Key Terms Variables Categorical (Nominal – Ordinal)**

Discrete Qualitative Frequency Continuous (Interval – Ratio) Quantitative Measurement

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**Key Terms Independent (Predictor) Variable**

Active (experimental) Attribute (measured) Dependent (Criterion) Variable Extraneous Variable Confounding Third Variable

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**Key Terms Descriptive Statistics Inferential Statistics**

Measures of Central Tendency Mean, Median, Mode Measures of Variability Range, Standard Deviation, Variance Inferential Statistics Parametric Nonparametric

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**Frequency Distributions**

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**Graphing Data – Constructing a Graph**

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**Distorting Data Through Graphing**

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**Bar Graphs (Categorical Data)**

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**Histograms (Continuous Data)**

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**Stem-and-Leaf Displays**

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Boxplots

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**Describing Distributions**

Symmetric (Normal Distribution) Modality Unimodal, Bi-Modal, Multi (tri)-Modal Skewness Negative, Normal (Symmetrical), Positive Kurtosis Platykurtic, Mesokurtic (Normal), Leptokurtic Linearity Linear or Curvilinear

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**Describing Distributions**

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**Describing Distributions**

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**Describing Distributions**

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**The Normal Distribution**

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**Summation Notation ()**

One of the most common symbols in statistics is the uppercase Greek letter sigma, (), which is the standard notation for summation. It is readily translated as “add up, or sum, what follows.” The general rule, which always applies, is to perform operations within parentheses before performing operations outside parentheses.

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**Common Statistical Symbols**

X A Raw Score Mean of a Sample Mean of a Population s Standard Deviation of a Sample Standard Deviation of a Population s 2 Variance of a Sample 2 Variance of a Population

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**Key Terms Probability Confidence Intervals Effect Size Standard Scores**

= Level of Significance p = Probability (Sig.) Confidence Intervals Effect Size d Family r Family Standard Scores z

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Hypothesis Testing

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**Non-Directional (two-tailed)**

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**Directional (one-tailed – negative end)**

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**Directional (one-tailed – positive end)**

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**Statistical Results and APA**

t(9) = 5.08, p < .05, d = 1.61 F(2, 57) = 9.75, p < .01, 2 = .42 | = Single Space NOT t(9)=5.08,p<.05,d=1.61 F(2,57)=9.75,p<.01,2=.42

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