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Geography of Canada Geography & Technology.

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Presentation on theme: "Geography of Canada Geography & Technology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Geography of Canada Geography & Technology

2 1.Geographic Information Systems 2.Global Positioning System

3 Geographic Information Systems Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a technology that manages, analyzes, and disseminates geographic knowledge. Essentially, GIS is maps on computers. Each characteristic of the Earth’s surface is mapped on a layer which can be viewed independently, or in combination with other layers.

4 Geographic Information Systems

5 There are three ways of viewing a GIS: a database, map, and model. –The Database View: A GIS is a unique kind of database of the world—a geographic database (geodatabase). It is an "Information System for Geography." Fundamentally, a GIS is based on a structured database that describes the world in geographic terms.

6 GIS can analyze data in many ways: Geographic Information Systems

7 –The Map View: A GIS is a set of intelligent maps and other views that show features and feature relationships on the earth's surface. Maps of the underlying geographic information can be constructed and used as "windows into the database" to support queries, analysis, and editing of the information. This is called geovisualization.

8 Geographic Information Systems –The Model View: A GIS is a set of information transformation tools that derive new geographic datasets from existing datasets. These geoprocessing functions take information from existing datasets, apply analytic functions, and write results into new derived datasets.

9 Attribute Information: What is it? Species: Oak Height: 15m Age: 75 Yrs Location Information: Where is it? 51°N, 112°W Source: ESRI Canada, WhatsGIS.ppt GIS – Locations and Attributes

10 GIS software links the location data and the attribute data: Source: ESRI Canada, What’s GIS.ppt GIS – Locations and Attributes

11 GIS software can answer questions about our world: What provinces border Saskatchewan? Spatial Questions: What provinces have more than 1.5 million people? Attribute Questions: Source: ESRI Canada, What’s GIS.ppt GIS – Asking Questions

12 GIS – Why Use It? Support for decision-making based on spatial data: Visual representation of data Maintenance, manipulation of data Analyze information and the affected area(s) geographically Produce customized cartographic products

13 GIS – Real World Uses Management Agriculture Public Utilities Health Care Emergency 911 Real Estate Marketing

14 What are the effects of Global Warming? Land cover and temperature relationships are made clear when the data are seen at once using Geotechnology. GIS – Real World Uses

15 Is it safe to dig here? A proposed excavation, identified by address, is compared to pipelines in the area using Geotechnology. Source: ESRI Canada, What’s GIS.ppt GIS – Real World Uses

16 What is the fastest route to the Hospital? Geotechnology can choose the fastest route to a hospital. The GIS can take into account traffic and other impediments. Source: ESRI Canada, What’s GIS.ppt GIS – Real World Uses

17 What Communities are at risk from Disease? Geotechnology identifies communities at risk of River Blindness and helps determine the impact of treatment. Source: ESRI Canada, What’s GIS.ppt GIS – Real World Uses

18 Global Positioning System The GPS (Global Positioning System) is a "constellation" of 24 well-spaced satellites that orbit the Earth and make it possible for people with ground receivers to pinpoint their geographic location. The location accuracy is anywhere from 100 to 10 metres for most equipment. Accuracy can be pinpointed to within one metre with special military-approved equipment.

19 Global Positioning System GPS equipment is widely used in science and has now become sufficiently low-cost so that almost anyone can own a GPS receiver. The GPS is owned and operated by the U.S. Department of Defense but is available for general use around the world.

20 Global Positioning System


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