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Lecture 8b – States of Matter Fluid Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

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Chapter 13 Fluids

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Phases of Matter Density and Specific Gravity Pressure in Fluids Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the Barometer Buoyancy and Archimedes’ Principle Units of Chapter 13

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Fluids in Motion; Flow Rate and the Equation of Continuity Bernoulli’s Equation Applications of Bernoulli’s Principle: Torricelli, Airplanes, Baseballs Units of Chapter 13

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. The three common phases of matter are solid, liquid, and gas. A solid has a definite shape and size. A liquid has a fixed volume but can be any shape. A gas can be any shape and also can be easily compressed. Liquids and gases both flow, and are called fluids. 13-1 Phases of Matter

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. The density ρ of a substance is its mass per unit volume: The SI unit for density is kg/m 3. Density is also sometimes given in g/cm 3 ; to convert g/cm 3 to kg/m 3, multiply by 1000. Water at 4°C has a density of 1 g/cm 3 = 1000 kg/m 3. The specific gravity of a substance is the ratio of its density to that of water. 13-2 Density and Specific Gravity

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 13-2 Density and Specific Gravity Example 13-1: Mass, given volume and density. What is the mass of a solid iron wrecking ball of radius 18 cm?

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Pressure is defined as the force per unit area. Pressure is a scalar; the units of pressure in the SI system are pascals: 1 Pa = 1 N/m 2. 13-3 Pressure in Fluids

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 13-3 Pressure in Fluids Example 13-2: Calculating pressure. The two feet of a 60-kg person cover an area of 500 cm 2. (a) Determine the pressure exerted by the two feet on the ground. (b) If the person stands on one foot, what will the pressure be under that foot?

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 13-3 Pressure in Fluids Pressure is the same in every direction in a static fluid at a given depth; if it were not, the fluid would flow.

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. For a fluid at rest, there is also no component of force parallel to any solid surface—once again, if there were, the fluid would flow. 13-3 Pressure in Fluids

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. The pressure at a depth h below the surface of the liquid is due to the weight of the liquid above it. We can quickly calculate: This relation is valid for any liquid whose density does not change with depth. 13-3 Pressure in Fluids

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. At sea level the atmospheric pressure is about 1.013 x 10 5 N/m 2 ; this is called 1 atmosphere (atm). Another unit of pressure is the bar: 1 bar = 1.00 x 10 5 N/m 2. Standard atmospheric pressure is just over 1 bar. This pressure does not crush us, as our cells maintain an internal pressure that balances it. 13-4 Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 13-4 Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure Conceptual Example 13-6: Finger holds water in a straw. You insert a straw of length l into a tall glass of water. You place your finger over the top of the straw, capturing some air above the water but preventing any additional air from getting in or out, and then you lift the straw from the water. You find that the straw retains most of the water. Does the air in the space between your finger and the top of the water have a pressure P that is greater than, equal to, or less than the atmospheric pressure P 0 outside the straw?

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Most pressure gauges measure the pressure above the atmospheric pressure—this is called the gauge pressure. The absolute pressure is the sum of the atmospheric pressure and the gauge pressure. 13-4 Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. There are a number of different types of pressure gauges. This one is an open-tube manometer. The pressure in the open end is atmospheric pressure; the pressure being measured will cause the fluid to rise until the pressures on both sides at the same height are equal. 13-6 Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the Barometer

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Here are two more devices for measuring pressure: the aneroid gauge and the tire pressure gauge. 13-6 Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the Barometer

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 13-6 Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the Barometer Pressure is measured in a variety of different units. This table gives the conversion factors.

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. This is a mercury barometer, developed by Torricelli to measure atmospheric pressure. The height of the column of mercury is such that the pressure in the tube at the surface level is 1 atm. Therefore, pressure is often quoted in millimeters (or inches) of mercury. 13-6 Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the Barometer

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Any liquid can serve in a Torricelli-style barometer, but the most dense ones are the most convenient. This barometer uses water. 13-6 Measurement of Pressure; Gauges and the Barometer

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. This is an object submerged in a fluid. There is a net force on the object because the pressures at the top and bottom of it are different. The buoyant force is found to be the upward force on the same volume of water: 13-7 Buoyancy and Archimedes’ Principle

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Archimedes’ Principle The buoyant force on a body immersed in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by that object F B = W df, df is displaced fluid

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Archimedes’ Principle – body completely submerged F B = W displaced fluid [ V o = V displaced fluid ]

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Archimedes’ Principle – body that floats F B = W displaced fluid F B = W object W object =W displaced fluid [ V submerged part = V displaced fluid ]

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General W = mg = m/V Completely submerged F B = W displaced fluid V object = V displaced fluid Floating F B = W displaced fluid F B = W object W object = W displaced fluid V submerged part = V displaced fluid Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. APA (Archimedes’ Principle Application) Table Solve our problems in a eureka beaker.

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 13-7 Buoyancy and Archimedes’ Principle Archimedes’ principle: The buoyant force on an object immersed in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by that object.

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 13-7 Buoyancy and Archimedes’ Principle Example 13-9: Recovering a submerged statue. A 70-kg ancient statue lies at the bottom of the sea. Its volume is 3.0 x 10 4 cm 3. How much force is needed to lift it?

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 13-7 Buoyancy and Archimedes’ Principle Example 13-10: Archimedes: Is the crown gold? When a crown of mass 14.7 kg is submerged in water, an accurate scale reads only 13.4 kg. Is the crown made of gold?

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. If an object’s density is less than that of water, there will be an upward net force on it, and it will rise until it is partially out of the water. 13-7 Buoyancy and Archimedes’ Principle

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. For a floating object, the fraction that is submerged is given by the ratio of the object’s density to that of the fluid. 13-7 Buoyancy and Archimedes’ Principle

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 13-7 Buoyancy and Archimedes’ Principle Example 13-11: Hydrometer calibration. A hydrometer is a simple instrument used to measure the specific gravity of a liquid by indicating how deeply the instrument sinks in the liquid. This hydrometer consists of a glass tube, weighted at the bottom, which is 25.0 cm long and 2.00 cm 2 in cross-sectional area, and has a mass of 45.0 g. How far from the end should the 1.000 mark be placed?

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 13-7 Buoyancy and Archimedes’ Principle Example 13-12: Helium balloon. What volume V of helium is needed if a balloon is to lift a load of 180 kg (including the weight of the empty balloon)?

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. If the flow of a fluid is smooth, it is called streamline or laminar flow (a). Above a certain speed, the flow becomes turbulent (b). Turbulent flow has eddies; the viscosity of the fluid is much greater when eddies are present. 13-8 Fluids in Motion; Flow Rate and the Equation of Continuity (a) (b)

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. We will deal with laminar flow. The mass flow rate is the mass that passes a given point per unit time. The flow rates at any two points must be equal, as long as no fluid is being added or taken away. This gives us the equation of continuity: 13-8 Fluids in Motion; Flow Rate and the Equation of Continuity Since then

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. If the density doesn’t change—typical for liquids—this simplifies to A 1 v 1 = A 2 v 2. Where the pipe is wider, the flow is slower. 13-8 Fluids in Motion; Flow Rate and the Equation of Continuity

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Bernoulli’s principle: Where the velocity of a fluid is high, the pressure is low, and where the velocity is low, the pressure is high. 13-9 Bernoulli’s Equation This makes sense, as a force is required to accelerate the fluid to a higher velocity.

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 13-9 Bernoulli’s Equation Consider the work it takes to move a small volume of fluid from one point to another while its flow is laminar. Work must be done to accelerate the fluid, and also to increase its height. Conservation of energy gives Bernoulli’s equation:

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 13-9 Bernoulli’s Equation Example 13-15: Flow and pressure in a hot-water heating system. Water circulates throughout a house in a hot-water heating system. If the water is pumped at a speed of 0.5 m/s through a 4.0-cm-diameter pipe in the basement under a pressure of 3.0 atm, what will be the flow speed and pressure in a 2.6-cm- diameter pipe on the second floor 5.0 m above? Assume the pipes do not divide into branches.

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Phases of matter: solid, liquid, gas Liquids and gases are called fluids. Density is mass per unit volume. Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of the material to that of water. Pressure is force per unit area. Pressure at a depth h is ρgh. External pressure applied to a confined fluid is transmitted throughout the fluid. Summary of Chapter 13

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Atmospheric pressure is measured with a barometer. Gauge pressure is the total pressure minus the atmospheric pressure. An object submerged partly or wholly in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces. Fluid flow can be laminar or turbulent. The product of the cross-sectional area and the speed is constant for horizontal flow. Summary of Chapter 13

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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Where the velocity of a fluid is high, the pressure is low, and vice versa. Summary of Chapter 13

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