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© 2005 by Prentice Hall Chapter 3a Database Design Modern Systems Analysis and Design Fourth Edition Jeffrey A. Hoffer Joey F. George Joseph S. Valacich
© 2005 by Prentice Hall 10-2 Learning Objectives Define key database design terms. Explain the role of database design in the IS development process. Explain normalization concept Transform ERD into an equivalent set of relations.
© 2005 by Prentice Hall 10-3
© 2005 by Prentice Hall 10-4 Logical Database Design Based upon the conceptual data model Four key steps 1. Develop a logical data model for each known user interface for the application using normalization principles. 2. Combine normalized data requirements from all user interfaces into one consolidated logical database model (view integration). 3. Translate the conceptual E-R data model for the application into normalized data requirements. 4. Compare the consolidated logical database design with the translated E-R model and produce one final logical database model for the application.
© 2005 by Prentice Hall 10-5 Deliverables and Outcomes Logical database design must account for every data element on a system input or output normalized relations are the primary deliverable
© 2005 by Prentice Hall 10-6 Relational Database Model Relational Database: data represented as a set of related tables (or relations) Relation: a named, two-dimensional table of data. Each relation consists of a set of named columns and an arbitrary number of unnamed rows Well-Structured Relation: a relation that contains a minimum amount of redundancy and allows users to insert, modify, and delete the rows without errors or inconsistencies
© 2005 by Prentice Hall 10-7 Properties of a Relation Entries in cells are simple. Entries in columns are from the same set of values. Each row is unique. The sequence of columns can be interchanged without changing the meaning or use of the relation. The rows may be interchanged or stored in any sequence.
© 2005 by Prentice Hall 10-8 Primary Keys Primary Key An attribute whose value is unique across all occurrences of a relation. All relations have a primary key. This is how rows are ensured to be unique. A primary key may involve a single attribute or be composed of multiple attributes.
© 2005 by Prentice Hall 10-9 Well-Structured Relation No redundancy, and data pertains to a single entity, an employee
© 2005 by Prentice Hall 10-10 A Poorly Structured Relation Redundancies, because data pertains to a two entities, employees and the courses they take
© 2005 by Prentice Hall 10-11 Normalization The process of converting complex data structures into simple, stable data structures First Normal From (1NF) Unique rows No multivalued attributes All relations are in 1NF
© 2005 by Prentice Hall 10-12 Normalization (cont.) Second Normal Form (2NF) Each nonprimary key attribute is identified by the whole key (called full functional dependency). Third Normal Form (3NF) Nonprimary key attributes do not depend on each other (i.e. no transitive dependencies). The result of normalization is that every nonprimary key attribute depends upon the whole primary key.
© 2005 by Prentice Hall 10-13 Normalized Relations Redundancies removed by breaking into two separate relations
© 2005 by Prentice Hall 10-14 Functional Dependencies and Primary Keys Foreign Key An attribute that appears as a nonprimary key attribute in one relation and as a primary key attribute (or part of a primary key) in another relation Referential Integrity An integrity constraint specifying that the value (or existence) of an attribute in one relation depends on the value (or existence) of the same attribute in another relation
© 2005 by Prentice Hall 10-15 Foreign Key Example The foreign key The foreign key establishes a one-to-many relationship between SPERSON (one) and SALES1 (many) There can be no SalesPerson value in SALES1 that does not exist in SPERSON (referential integrity)
© 2005 by Prentice Hall 10-16 Transforming E-R Diagrams into Relations It is useful to transform the conceptual data model into a set of normalized relations Steps Represent entities Represent relationships Normalize the relations Merge the relations
© 2005 by Prentice Hall 10-17 Representing Entities Each regular entity is transformed into a relation. The identifier of the entity type becomes the primary key of the corresponding relation. The primary key must satisfy the following two conditions. a.The value of the key must uniquely identify every row in the relation. b.The key should be nonredundant.
© 2005 by Prentice Hall 10-18
© 2005 by Prentice Hall 10-19 Represent Relationships Binary 1:N Relationships Add the primary key attribute (or attributes) of the entity on the one side of the relationship as a foreign key in the relation on the right side. The one side migrates to the many side. Binary or Unary 1:1 Three possible options a.Add the primary key of A as a foreign key of B. b.Add the primary key of B as a foreign key of A. c.Both of the above.
© 2005 by Prentice Hall 10-20 Represent Relationships (cont.)
© 2005 by Prentice Hall 10-21 Represent Relationships (cont.)
© 2005 by Prentice Hall 10-22 Represent Relationships (cont.) Binary and Higher M:N relationships Create another relation and include primary keys of all relations as primary key of new relation.
© 2005 by Prentice Hall 10-23 Represent Relationships (cont.)
© 2005 by Prentice Hall 10-24 Represent Relationships (cont.)
© 2005 by Prentice Hall 10-25 Represent Relationships (cont.) Unary 1:N Relationships Relationship between instances of a single entity type Utilize a recursive foreign key A foreign key in a relation that references the primary key values of that same relation. Unary M:N Relationships Create a separate relation. Primary key of new relation is a composite of two attributes that both take their values from the same primary key.
© 2005 by Prentice Hall 10-26 EMPLOYEE(Emp_ID, Name, Birthdate, Manager_ID)
© 2005 by Prentice Hall 10-27 ITEM(Item_Number, Name, Cost) ITEMCOMPONENT(Item_Number, Component_Number, Quantity)
© 2005 by Prentice Hall 10-28
© 2005 by Prentice Hall 10-29 Summary In this chapter you learned how to: Define key database design terms. Explain the role of database design in the IS development process. Explain normalization concept Transform ERD into an equivalent set of relations.
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10-1 Chapter 10 Designing Databases Modern Systems Analysis and Design Jeffrey A. Hoffer Joey F. George Joseph S. Valacich.
1 C omputer information systems Design Instructor: Mr. Ahmed Al Astal IGGC1202 College Requirement University Of Palestine.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 9.1.
MIS 385/MBA 664 Systems Implementation with DBMS/ Database Management Dave Salisbury ( )
Functional Dependence An attribute A is functionally dependent on attribute(s) B if: given a value b for B there is one and only one corresponding value.
© 2006 ITT Educational Services Inc. SE350 System Analysis for Software Engineers: Unit 2 Slide 1 Chapter 10 Designing Databases.
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