Talking about your homework News story? –What made you choose…? One of your words? –What made you choose…? (Give your vocabulary books to another student.
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Talking about your homework News story? –What made you choose…? One of your words? –What made you choose…? (Give your vocabulary books to another student. He or she will test you. Give clues!) –What does ___ mean? –How many senses does ___ have? –What words does ___ collocate with? –How many grammar frames does it occur in? –Can you remember the example sentence?
Today Review and discuss homework Introduction to language corpus study Start on Food and diet
Giving and following instructions Student 1: Give step-by-step instructions for finding the top collocations and best sentences Student 2: Use a laptop computer and follow the instructions exactly
Introduction to corpus linguistics Simon Smith & Adam Kilgarriff
Plan for today Short review of corpus basics 4 ages of corpus research – From pre-computer age, to SkE Functions of SkE Demonstration of SkE in use
Quiz What’s a (linguistic) corpus? What does the Latin word mean? What are corpora?corpora What’s the BNC? How big is the British National Corpus? What is the advantage of having a very big corpus? What can corpora be used for?
5 major uses for linguistic corpora Language learning and teaching Theoretical research on Language and Linguistics Literary research and analysis Language technology Lexicography (=dictionary making) – Cobuild, Longman, … – All learner dictionaries now use corpora
How do you make a dictionary? (What sources can you use?) Use your own knowledge of words Ask all your friends for their knowledge Consult other dictionaries – and copy them Read thousands of books – and take lots of notes Use a corpus
Taiwan, Dec 2006 Four ages of corpus research (in lexicography) Kilgarriff, Lexical Computing Slide: 9 Age 1: Pre-computer Age 2: KWIC concordance (KWIC=?) Age 3: Corpus query tools e.g. Sketch Engine
Taiwan, Dec 2006 Kilgarriff, Lexical Computing Slide: 10 Age 1: Pre-computer First Oxford English (1860) Dictionary: 20 million index cards – a word (usually rare) and a citation
Taiwan, Dec 2006 Kilgarriff, Lexical Computing Slide: 11 Age 2: KWIC Concordance
Taiwan, Dec 2006 Kilgarriff, Lexical Computing Slide: 12 Age 2 (~1980-1990): KWIC Concordances Using computers List of lines which contain a keyword The keyword is in the middle
Taiwan, Dec 2006 Kilgarriff, Lexical Computing Slide: 13 4 person in an agreement/dispute 1 political association 4 person in an agreement/dispute 2 social event 5 to be party to something... 3 group of people The coloured pens method
Taiwan, Dec 2006 Kilgarriff, Lexical Computing Slide: 14 Age 2: limitations as corpora get bigger: too much data 50 lines for a word: read all 500 lines: could read all, takes a long time 5000 lines: impossible
Why do corpora keep getting bigger? (anyone?) Improvements in technology – Price of storage is going down – Speed of access is going up Representativeness – Small corpus many examples of common words, maybe – But not enough examples of unusual words
Lexical distribution What’s the most common word in English? What % does it make up of a whole corpus? The 100 most common words make up __% of all the words in a corpus? The 7500 most common words make up __% Answers: – The, 5%, 45% and 90% So: – you need massive corpora, if you want to really represent rare words properly
19 Limitation of KWIC analysis A s corpora get bigger: too much data – 50 lines for a word: read all – 500 lines: could read all, takes a long time – 5000 lines: no Instead, look at a Word Sketch from Sketch Engine – a statistical summary of word usage – shows most common collocates
Functions of SkE KWIC concordance – Sorting, filtering etc Word sketch Automatic thesaurus Sketch difference – discriminate near-synonyms 22
23 Lexical approach to language learning Lewis (1993) and Schmitt (2000) say – the vocab is stored in the brain in collocations – Bacon is stored near eggs – 蛋 is stored near 炒飯 – scotch is stored with whisky Saying strong car or powerful tea or broken house seems very “foreign”
24 From www.teachingenglish.org - a lexical approach activity, based on a story textwww.teachingenglish.org
Fruit and veg What fruit and veg do you like? How many servings of fruit and veg do you eat each day? Is that enough? Do you have a good diet? –What other kinds of good food do you often eat? –What junk food do you eat?
Food pyramid (p 119) Label the pyramid in your book Look at http://mypyramid.govhttp://mypyramid.gov Compare the two –See http://www.mypyramid.gov/downloads/MyPyramid_Anatomy.pdf http://www.mypyramid.gov/downloads/MyPyramid_Anatomy.pdf Use the website to see how much you should be eating from each food group. –Now, comment on your diet!
Genetically modified food (picture) Guess answers to p 123a Read