6 Learning Check Identify each as a chiral or achiral compound. A CH 2 CH 3 HCH 3 Cl C B H HCH 3 Cl C C Br HCH 3 Cl C
7 Solution Identify each as a chiral or achiral compound. chiral achiral chiral A CH 2 CH 3 HCH 3 Cl C B H HCH 3 Cl C C Br HCH 3 Cl C
8 Fischer Projections A Fischer projection is a 2-dimensional representation of a 3-dimensional molecule. places the most oxidized group at the top. uses vertical lines in place of dashes for bonds that go back. uses horizontal lines in place of wedges for bonds that come forward.
22 A carboxylic acid contains a carboxyl group, which is a carbonyl group (C=O) attached to a hydroxyl group (—OH). is found on carbon 1 in carboxylic acids. O CH 3 — C—OHhydroxyl group or CH 3 COOH carbonyl group Carboxylic Acids
23 Models of Carboxylic Acids The three-dimensional models show the geometry of atoms in carboxylic acid molecules.
24 The IUPAC names of carboxylic acids: Replace the -e in the alkane name with -oic acid. CH 4 methane HCOOH methanoic acid CH 3 —CH 3 ethane CH 3 —COOH ethanoic acid Number substituents from the carboxyl carbon 1. CH 3 O | ║ CH 3 —CH—CH 2 —C—OH 4 3 2 1 3-methylbutanoic acid IUPAC Names
26 Common Carboxylic Acids Methanoic acid (formic acid) O ║ H─C─OH ethanoic acid (acetic acid) O ║ CH 3 ─C─OH
27 Aromatic Carboxylic Acids Benzoic acid is the aromatic carboxylic acid. locates substituents by numbering the ring from carbon 1 in the carboxyl group. 3-chlorobenzoic acid 4-aminobenzoic acid benzoic acid
28 Learning Check Give the IUPAC names of each compound. A. CH 3 ─CH 2 ─COOH CH 3 | B. CH 3 ─CH─CH 2 ─COOH C.