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Cosmology Overview David Spergel

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Lecture Outline THEME: Observations suggest that the simplest cosmological model, a homogenuous flat universe describes the universe on its largest scales I.General Relativity: Dynamics and Shape of the Universe II.Metric Theory III.Evidence for Isotropy IV.Tests of Metric Theories V.Open Questions and Future Observations

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General Relativity: A Review Space is not absolute. Only relative positions are meaningful. Matter tells space how to curve Curvature of space tells matter how to move: particles move on “straight lines”

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Metric Theory

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Particles move on straight lines NEWTONIAN LIMIT:

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Matter Distribution determines curvature of space Riemann Tensor: Unique combination of second derivatives of metric Ricci tensorCurvature Scalar Einstein Equation Newtonian limit of Einstein equation

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GR from Least Action Principle Least Action: Once you start adding terms, there may be no stopping: e.g., Carroll et al., astro-ph/0413001 What is this doing here?

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Big Bang Cosmology Homogeneous, isotropic universe (flat universe) Freidmann Equation

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Pseudo-Newtonian Cosmology Differentiate Friedmann equation: where

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Homogeneous & Isotropic Universe

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Homogeneity

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Isotropy

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MAP990045 Microwave Receiver The Cosmic Microwave Background and y distortion constraints CMB is not a grey body! Not a sum of black bodies!

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Density fluctuation versus scale

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Quasar Correlation Function

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Evolution of Scale Factor Matter: Radiation Vacuum Energy

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Conformal Structure of Space-time

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Redshift

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Supernova Duration Goldhaber et al. (2001) ApJ 558, 359

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Molaro et al. (2002) Expansion of the universe cools microwave background CI thermometer

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Hubble Law Krisciunas, Phillips and Suntzeff (2004) ApJL 602:81

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Rulers and Standard Candles Luminosity Distance Angular Diameter Distance

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Supernova

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Flat M.D. Universe D = 1500 Mpc for z > 0.5

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Volume

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Measuring Distances

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Closed Universes

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Distance Measurements

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The universe appears to be remarkably simple in its geometry if not its composition

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