TCSS 372A Computer Architecture. Getting Started Get acquainted (take pictures) Discuss purpose, scope, and expectations of the course Discuss personal.
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Getting Started Get acquainted (take pictures) Discuss purpose, scope, and expectations of the course Discuss personal expectations & strategy for doing well Review Web Page (http://faculty.washington.edu/lcrum) Review Syllabus, Textbook, and Simulator book Discuss Laboratory (CP 206D), Access, Etiquette, Equipment Check-out Discuss Homework Format Laboratory Report Format
CSS 372 - Lecture 1 Chapter 3 – Connecting Computer Components with Buses Bus Structures Synchronous, Asynchronous Typical Bus Signals Two level, Tri-state, Wired Or Hierarchical Bus Organizations PCI Bus Example
What is a Bus? A communication pathway connecting two or more devices (Computers, Components, I/O, …) Usually broadcast Often grouped –A number of channels in one bus –e.g. 32 bit data bus is 32 separate single bit channels Power lines may not be shown
What do Buses look like? –Parallel lines on circuit boards –Ribbon cables –Strip connectors on mother boards –Sets of wires
Data Bus (Subset of Bus) Carries data –Remember that there is no difference between “data” and “instruction” at this level Width is a key determinant of performance –8, 16, 32, 64 bit
Address Bus (Subset of Bus) Identify the source or destination of data e.g. CPU needs to read an instruction (data) from a given location in memory Bus width determines maximum memory capacity of system –e.g. 8080 has 16 bit address bus giving 64k address space
Control Bus (Subset of Bus) Control and timing information –Memory read/write signal(s) –Interrupt request/acknowledge signal(s) –Clock signal(s) –Etc.
Power/Ground (Subset of bus ?) Provides Power and Reference Levels for Devices May be several voltage levels Ground may be dispersed between signals
Types of Buses Synchronous Asynchronous (Hand Shaking) Serial (Twisted pair, Coaxial Cable,..) Parallel (Ribbon Cable, Bundle of Wires,…) Dedicated - Separate data & address lines Multiplexed - Shared lines - Address valid or data valid control line - Advantage - fewer lines - Disadvantages More complex control Ultimate performance
Physical Considerations for Buses Media (voltage, optic) Signal levels – the higher, the more immune to noise Noise Absorption – wires can pick up noise from neighboring wires Noise Generation – wires can be antennas Length Creates Delay ( reduces Bandwidth) Consumes Power Creates reflections – (Terminations become more critical)
Signal Scheme Alternatives Totempole - High or Low output level Line always at a 1 level or 0 level Open collector, open drain, wired-or Line is nominally at a 1 level or 0 level – line is “pulled” to non-nominal level Tristate Has third state – open Differential Uses a pair of lines – the level is the difference of signals on the two lines.
Bus Challenges Lots of devices on one bus leads to: –Propagation delays Long data paths mean that co-ordination of bus use can adversely affect performance –Traffic congestion Too many devices communicating reduces bandwidth Alternative - Systems use multiple buses
Simple Computer Bus +s + clock(s), power(s), and ground(s) Notes: 1) Bus lines need to be properly terminated 2) Power lines are to furnish reference voltage, not power
Bus Arbitration More than one module may need to control the bus e.g. CPUs and DMA controller Only one module may control the bus at one time Arbitration may be centralised or distributed
Centralised or Distributed Arbitration Centralised –Single hardware device controlling bus access Bus Controller Arbiter –May be part of CPU or separate Distributed –More than one module may claim the bus Need control logic on all these modules
Timing Co-ordination of events on bus Synchronous –Events determined by clock cycles –Control Bus includes clock line(s) –A single 1- 0 sequence is a bus cycle (or phase) –All devices can read clock line –Likely they sync on leading edge –Likely a single cycle for an event (may be multiple clock cycles or phases)