Presentation on theme: "The 17th and 18th(Neoclassical) Century"— Presentation transcript:
1 The 17th and 18th(Neoclassical) Century 1625-1798 Mrs. Cumberland
2 A Turbulent Time: Historical Background In 1649, the English shocked the world by beheading their king and abolishing the monarchy.In the decades before the civil wars tore England apart, revolutions in science and religion had already unsettled people’s worldview.
3 The new astronomy had exiled the Earth from the center of the universe to the vastness of infinite space.New religious creeds had altered or abolished the traditions of centuries.John Donne wrote, with his newfound insecurity, “Tis all in pieces, all coherence gone.”Changes
4 Monarch is BackBy the 1700s, though, a monarch was back on the throne, and a new, competitive society had sprung up, with a looser social structure and greater freedom in religion and politics.
5 Charles I and Parliament Crowned in 1625Clashed with Parliament over moneyKing Charles needed money for his wars, and Parliament refused to fund them.
6 Loans? No Loans?The king then extorted loans from his wealthy subjects and pressed the poor into service as soldiers and sailors.Parliament tried to prevent such abuses of power, so Charles eventually dissolved Parliament and would not call it into session for 11yrs.
7 Religious Controversy He insisted the clergymen “conform,” or observe all the ceremonies of the Anglican Church.Puritans- Calvanists who wished to purify the Church of its Catholic traditions- were enraged by some of these requirements.
8 TorturePuritans believed that each group of worshipers, moved by the members’ divinely granted consciences, had the right to choose its own minister- an idea dangerously close to democracy. For these and other ideas, “dissenters” were persecuted and tortured as criminals.
9 The Civil WarCharles’s problem grew worse after he was forced to fight Scottish rebels outraged by his insistence on religious conformity.Desperate for money, he summoned a hostile ParliamentParliament condemned Charles I as a tyrant in 1642Civil war broke outIn 1645, Parliament’s forces, led by Oliver Cromwell, defeated the royalist army and captured Charles
10 Cromwell Rules Radical Puritans: dominated Parliament Tried and convicted the king for treasonCharles I was beheaded on January 30, 1649Cromwell led the new government, called the English CommonwealthHe dissolved Parliament in 1653 and named himself Lord ProtectorHe ruled as a dictator until 1658 when he died
11 OutlawingCivil war had not led to the free society that many who had fought against the king expected.Hopes, economic hardship = unrestThe Commonwealth fueled discontent by outlawingGamblingHorse racingNewspapersFancy clothesPublic dancingThe theater
12 The RestorationBy Cromwell’s death, England had had enough taxation, violence, and disorder.In 1658, Parliament offered the crown to the exiled son of Charles I, who became Charles II in 1660.The monarch was restored
13 In sharp contrast to the drab Puritan leaders, Charles II and his court copied the plush fashions of ParisCharlesAvid patron of the arts and scienceInvited Italian composers and Dutch painters to live and work in London.
14 European Political Thinkers Major IdeasQuotationThomas HobbesLeviathan(1651)People are driven by selfishness and greed. To avoid chaos, they give up their freedom to a government that will ensure order. Such a government must be strong and able to suppress rebellion“The condition of man [in the state of nature]… is a condition of war of everyone against everyone.”
15 European Political Thinkers Major IdeasQuotationJohn LockeTwo Treaties of Government(1690)People have a natural right to life, liberty, and property. Rulers have a responsibility to protect those rights. People have the right to change a government that fails to do so.“Men being… by nature all free, equal, and independent, no one can be put out of this estate and subjected to the political power of another without his own consent.”
16 European Political Thinkers Major IdeasQuotationBaron de MontesquieuThe Spirit of the Laws(1748)The powers of government should be separated into executive, legislative, and judicial branches, to prevent any one group from gaining too much power.“In order to have… liberty, it is necessary that government be set up so that one man need not be afraid of another.”
17 A Glorious Revolution Charles II’s successor: James II Devout Catholic.Parliament invited Mary, the Protestant daughter of James II, to rule England jointly with her husband, William of Orange.Rather than fight, James escaped to FranceThe people of England hailed the event as the “Glorious Revolution of 1688” because not a drop of blood had been shed.
18 1689 Bill of RightsWilliam and Mary agreed to Parliaments Bill of RightsThis bill guaranteed Parliament the right to approve all taxes and forbade the monarch to suspend the law.England thus attained a limited, or constitutional, monarchy.
19 Tories and WhigsIn ensuing decades, two political factions crystallized in Parliament: the conservative, aristocratic Tories and the Whigs, drawn largely from Britain’s growing merchant class.A cabinet of ministers drawn from Parliament, and eventually unified under the leadership of a prime minister, began to rule the country.
20 An Agricultural Revolution By the late 1600s, new farm tools made it possible for farms to produce much more food.Population surged upwardMany people left the countrysideGrowing townsBecame factory hands who ran the machines of the early Industrial Revolution
21 The Industrial AgeBritish inventions after 1750 made the spinning and weaving of cloth much more efficient.The steam engine was perfected and adapted to run a power loomFactories were built to produce vast quantities of cotton clothMerchants sold goods all over the worldAs late as 1790s: most were still earning a living as farmers
22 The EnlightenmentThe scientific revolution that made industry possible stemmed from a larger development in thought known as the Enlightenment.Through reason and observation of nature, human beings could discover the order underlying all things
23 The EnlightenmentSir Isaac Newton: study of gravity
24 The EnlightenmentMen, women, and children toiled at machines for hr/dayPoor people crowded the towns and citiesBy the late 1700s “progress”= miseryWriters and intellectuals began to lose faith in the ability of human reason to solve every problem
25 Technology and Society Connections Efficiency and agriculture and industry had deep social consequencesRich landowners pushed ahead with enclosure, by which they took over and fenced off the common land formerly shared by peasant villagers.Farm output roseProfits rose because large fields needed fewer people to work themSmall farmers were forced off their land because they could not compete with large landholdersThe jobless or landless farm workers migrate to the cities.
26 Literature of the Period The Schools of Jonson and Donne 17th and 18th Century
27 Ben Jonson ( )Strove for the perfection and harmony he found in his beloved classical authors, turning away from the ornate style of Elizabethan times to create his own modern, strong voice.He wrote poems, plays, and masques (court entertainments)
29 Ben Jonson Took seriously the role of the poet He believed, in fact, that no other profession could compare to it.Poets, he wrote, encourage “young men to all good disciplines, inflame grown men to all great virtues and keep old men in their best and supreme state“A person could not be a good poet without being a good man,” he asserted
30 Jonson InfluencesHis critical opinion exercised a powerful influence on other poets of the time.Robert Herrick ( )Sir John Suckling ( )Richard Lovelace ( )
31 The Products of Jonson Robert Herrick Sir John Suckling Richard Lovelace
33 John DonnePioneered a new, witty, cerebral style later known as Metaphysical PoetryCharacterized by:Unusual degree of intellectualismSubtle arguments that raid the worlds of science, law, and philosophy for surprising but strangely accurate comparisons.
34 Examples of such… “A Valediction of Weeping” Compares his tears, which reflect his lover’s face, to coins that are stamped with her image“A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning”Compares parted lovers to the two legs of a drawing compass
35 Followers of Donne: George Herbert ( 1593-1633) Andrew Marvell ( )
36 The Followers Andrew Marvell George Herbert Best lyrics blend the brilliance of Donne and the classical finish of JonsonOffer observations on nature, love, and God that, at first, seem urbane and perhaps conventional, but on closer inspection prove profound.His best known poem, “To His Coy Mistress” is one of the best lyrics in English literature.George HerbertHis mother was a friend of Donne’sHis life parallels Donne’sFelt tension between worldly ambition and religious devotionBecame an Anglican deaconBest poems are religious lyrics collected in “The Temple”
37 The Puritan WritersPerhaps the greatest poet of the 17th century was a Puritan, not a Cavalier: John MiltonThe Puritan movement also produced the best-selling prose writer of the century, John BunyanOnly the Bible sold more copies than Bunyan’s religious narrative, “The Pilgrim’s Progress.”
38 John Milton ( 1608-1674) Learned disciple of Greek and Latin authors Studied the Old Testament in Hebrew
39 Milton Born to a prosperous middle-class family Studied at Cambridge Wrote political pamphlets for the Puritan cause when the battle between Charles I and Parliament was in the midst.Areopagitica ( Milton’s pamphlet): a ringing call for freedom of the pressSupported the Commonewealth and Protectorate and defended the execution of Charles I.Milton lost hope of forming a just society on earth when Cromwell’s rule turned to dictatorship
40 British Events/ World Events TimelineBritish Events/ World Events
41 British Events/ World Events 1627 Sir Francis Bacon publishes The New Atlantis1628 Willam Harvey explains blood circulation1633 John Donne’s Songs and Sonnets published1635 Public mail service established1637 John Milton publishes Lycidas1600 Japan: Kabuki theater developed1614 North America: Dutch found New Amsterdam
43 British Events/ World Events 1640 Charles I summons Long Parliament1642 English Civil War begins1646 John Suckling publishes Fragmenta Aurea1647 George Fox founds Society of Friends ( Quakers)1649 Charles I beheaded; Puritans close theaters; Oliver Cromwell becomes Lord Protector1650 Early newspaper ads appear; Full-blown wigs come into fashion1640 India: English settlement established in Madras1640 North America: Bay Psalm Book published in Massachusetts1643 France: Louis XIV becomes king1650 North America: Anne Bradstreet’s collection of poems is published1651 North America: William Bradford finishes Of Plymouth Plantation
45 British Events/ World Events 1658 Oliver Cromwell dies; Puritan government collapses1660 Monarchy restored; theaters reopen1666 Great Fire of London1667 John Milton’s Paradise Lost published1668 John Dryden publishes An Essay of Dramatic Poesy1662 France: Louis XIV begins building palace of Versailles1664 North America: Britain seizes New Netherlands1666 Italy: Stradivari labels first violin
47 British Events/ World Events 1685 James II becomes king1688 Glorious Revolution1688 Bill of Rights becomes law1702 First daily newspaper begins publication1680 China: All ports open to foreign trade1685 France: Louis XIV revokes Edict of Nantes, provoking persecution of Protestants1690 India: Calcutta founded by British1703 Russia: Peter the Great begins building St. Petersburg
49 British Events/ World Events 1712 Alexander Pope published The Rape of Lock1714 George I becomes king1719 Daniel Defoe publishes Robinson Crusoe1726 Jonathan Swift publishes Gulliver’s Travels1751 Thomas Gray publishes “Elegy in a Country Churchyard”1715 France: Louis XV succeeds to throne1721 Germany: Bach composes Brandenburg Concertos1727 Brazil: First coffee planted1752 North America: Benjamin Franklin invents lighting rod
51 British Events/ World Events 1755 Samuel Jonson publishes Dictionary of the English Language1756 Britain enters Seven Years’ War1793 England goes to war with France1773 North America: Boston Tea Party1775 North America: American Revolution begins1784 France: first school established for the blind1789 France: Revolution begins with storming of the Bastille
53 Milton Went blind in 1652 as a result of his labors Composed an epic that would explain why God allows suffering in this world: The epic, Paradise Lost, reflects Milton’s humanistic love of poetry and his Puritan devotion to God.