“Money is whatever is generally accepted in exchange for goods and services — a temporary abode of purchasing power to be used for buying still other goods.
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Presentation on theme: "“Money is whatever is generally accepted in exchange for goods and services — a temporary abode of purchasing power to be used for buying still other goods."— Presentation transcript:
1 “Money is whatever is generally accepted in exchange for goods and services — a temporary abode of purchasing power to be used for buying still other goods and services.” Milton FriedmanMoney: a liquid asset is that can easily (i.e., quickly, cheaply, conveniently) be exchanged for goods and services.
2 Functions of Money Medium of exchange Unit of account Store of value Standard of Deferred PaymentStore of value6
3 Money: A Standard of Deferred Payment Debt is denominated in money terms.The standard for repayment is money.There is a difference between money and credit:Money is what you use to pay for goods and services.Credit is debt, something you owe.
4 Money: A Store of Value = Wealth Money: one possible way to carry buying power forward into the future.For money to be a store of value, it must be durable retain value over time.Inflation reduces the effectiveness of money as a store of value.
5 M1 Money Supply: Means of Payment Currency … the bills and coins we use.In 2003, currency was 52% of M1.U.S. currency is not backed by goldIt is backed by the confidence and trust of the public.Money backed by gold or silver (or something else) is commodity money.Demand Deposits / Other Checkable Deposits… can be converted into currency and are used to settle debts.Travelers Checks … accepted in payment for things12
7 M2: A Broader Definition of Money M2 includes everything in M1 … plusSavings depositsSmall denomination time deposits (CDs)Retail money market mutual fundsM2 adds to M1 less liquid assets that can easily be converted to M1 (means of payment)
10 Financial Intermediaries That Hold Our Money 1) Commercial banks2) Savings and loan associations3) Savings banks and credit unions4) Money market mutual funds22
11 Fractional Reserve Banking Banks keep less than 100 percent of deposits available for withdrawal.They lend out the restAn outgrowth of goldsmith practices.Deposit insurance few bank runs
12 How Banks Create Money Reserves: Actual and Required Reserve ratio: the fraction of a bank’s total deposits that are held in reserves.Required reserve ratio:must be kept on hand or on deposit with the Federal Reserve (the U.S. Central Bank)Excess reserves: reserves beyond those requiredExcess reserves can be loaned.48
13 Multiple Creation of Bank Deposits M1 Instructor Notes:1) When a bank receives deposits, it keeps 25 percent in reserves and lends 75 percent.2) The amount lent becomes a new deposit at another bank.3) The next bank in the sequence keeps 25 percent and lends 75 percent, and the process continues until the banking system has created enough deposits to eliminate its excess reserves.4) The running tally tells us the amounts of deposits and loans created at each stage.5) At the end of the process, an additional $100,000 of reserves creates an additional $400,000 of deposits.59
15 The magnitudes of both multipliers are reduced by leakages The Deposit Expansion Multiplier and The Autonomous Spending MultiplierThe deposit expansion multiplier is analogous to the spending multiplierThe deposit expansion multiplier is not the same thing as the spending multiplierThe magnitudes of both multipliers are reduced by leakagesBank reserves are not relent and hence not recycled through the banking systemMoney held as currency and not deposited in banks is another leakage that reduces the deposit expansion multiplierHousehold saving is not recycled thru the spending systemIncome siphoned off as taxes and income spent on imports are other leakages from the spending stream that reduce the spending multiplier
16 The Federal Reserve System The Federal Reserve System (“the Fed”) is the central bank of the United States.Central bank functions:Bankers’ bank:accepts deposits from banksmakes loans to banks.Banker for the government.It controls the money supply.Regulates banksClears checks
17 Structure of the Federal Reserve System The Board of GovernorsBen Bernanke, Chair6 other governors12 Regional Federal Reserve District Banks (FRBs)Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC)The Board of Governors (7)5 of 12 District Presidents (in Rotation)9
18 The Federal Reserve System Instructor Notes:1) The nation is divided into 12 Federal Reserve districts, each having a Federal Reserve bank. (Some of the larger districts also have branch banks.)2) The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System is located in Washington, D.C.14
19 The Board of GovernorsSeven members appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate14-year termTerms are staggered:one comes vacant every two yearsPresident appoints Chairman to serve a four-year term10
20 Functions of the Fed Banking Services and Supervision Supplies currency to banks through its 12 district federal reserve banks.Holds reserves of banks in the district bank of each bank.These are commercial bank deposits at the FedProcesses and routes checks to banks through its district banks and processing centers.Makes loans to banks—it is the “lender of last resort”, the “banker’s bank”.It supervises and regulate banks, ensuring that they operate in a sound and prudent manner.Banker for the U.S. government.Manages sales of government securities for the U.S. Treasury.
21 Adjust federal funds rate to meet policy goals of the FOMC. Functions of the FedControlling the Money SupplyVary money supply to meet seasonal fluctuations in the demand for money.Helps keep interest rates steady.Example: 4th quarter holiday season creates an increased demand for money to buy gifts.Adjust federal funds rate to meet policy goals of the FOMC.