2 Ethnic Conflict Conflict between ethnic groups Ethnic groups Share common sense of identity, culture, common historyExists as a subgroup in a larger society or nationSources of ethnic group identificationHistory, social status, race, religionSymbols, myths, memoriesNationCulturally homogeneous groups of people, larger than a single tribe or community, which share a common language, institutions, religion, and historical experience
6 Croatia Declares independence 1991 Recognized as independent by UN in 1992Ethnic war between Croat and SerbsEthnic cleansingPopulation:1996: Croat 78%, Serb 12%, other 10%2001: Croat 89.6%, Serb 4.5%, other 5.9% %Source: CIA Factbook
7 Bosnia-Herzegovina Declared independence in 1992 Resistance from ethnic Serbs,War between Serbs, Bosnians, CroatsDayton Agreement 1995International peacekeepersOffice of High RepresentativesEntities: Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republika Srpska
8 Role of Leadership Extreme groups Insecure, autocratic leadership Manipulation of symbols, ideology, history
9 Kosovo Province in Serbia Ethnic composition: 88% Albanian, 6% Serbs, 3% Muslim Slav, 2% RomaKosovo Liberation Army guerrilla war 1998Milosevic sends troops to Serbian populationNATO air strikesMilosevic looses power 2000, 2001 in HagueKosovo: UN protectorateAlbanians dominate parliamentSpring 2004 unrest in Serb territories4000 Serbs fled
10 The Role of Democracy? Representation of ethnic groups’ interests Strengthen ethnic groups moderatesIdeological moderation?
11 Macedonia: qualified success? Declares independence 1991Greece objectsFYR MacedoniaEthnic groups: Macedonian 64%, Albanian 25%, other 11%Democratic, multi-ethnic government2001 – ethnic conflict broke out lead by Albanian radical group linked to KLAGovernments invites peacekeeping troop: NATO and UNConflict minimized