12 and 15 November, 2004 Chapter 19 Molecular Evolution and Phylogenetics.
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12 and 15 November, 2004 Chapter 19 Molecular Evolution and Phylogenetics
Overview Comparing genome sequences has offered unprecedented insight into the nature and evolution of species. Most animals have essentially the same genes. Duplication may be followed by structural or regulatory diversification. Regulatory divergence may involve a change in location of expression, in the structure of a regulator, or in the arrangement of enhancers that respond to a signal. Manipulation of pattern formation genes can lead to striking changes in morphology. Hox gene cluster organization is conserved from Drosophila to mammals. Morphological differences between Arthropod groups are explicable in molecular terms. Conservation of pattern formation mechanisms is common across phyla. Humans have only 25-30 thousand genes, and develop complexity from combinatoric factors.