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How do you know it worked

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Presentation on theme: "How do you know it worked"— Presentation transcript:

1 How do you know it worked
Single Subject Designs in Teaching

2 How do we know if our teaching is successful or change is due to chance?
Functional Relationship – a cause and effect. The target behavior changes as a result of the intervention Functional Relationship exists between the two variables when the interventions have been systematically replicated on or more times

3 Variable: any number of factors involved in research
Variable: any number of factors involved in research. (factors related to participants, conditions, interventions) GOAL: to control for the presence of absence of variables that may effect the outcomes

4 Variables Independent: intervention being used
Dependent: behavior targeted for change Confounding: Those variables in the environment that are not controlled but may influence the dependent variable What if in the Ellis study on the same day as the teachers began using the stop watches, another teacher began giving ten minutes of extra free time?

5 Components of a SSD Baseline Measures
A measure of the behavior under the conditions that currently exist. Provide a measure of the behavior if no intervention occurs.

6 Components of a SSD Baseline Measures
Why do we want a baseline to be as stable as possible? What are two measures of stability? Variability Trend Used to test the effects of an intervention Variability –research 5% range; theraputic 20% range, they suggest 50% Too much variability makes it difficult to draw conclusion Good operational definition Naturally occurring variability

7 What to consider when trying to intervene?
Too much variability makes it difficult to draw conclusions Good operational definition of the dependent variable Naturally occurring variability

8 Trends in the data points
No trend Ascending trend Descending trend

9 Components of a SSD Intervention Measures
Repeated measures of the behavior under treatment conditions Experimental Control insures that changes in the behavior are in fact due to the intervention and not other confounding variables…a functional relationship exists

10 Teaching designs A functional relationship is not established (lack of experimental control) Less confident assumptions can be drawn Provide sufficient indication of behavior change

11 Research Designs Allows for experimental control and the existence of a functional relationship

12 AB Designs Referred to as the “Teaching design” Consists of two phases
Advantages Disadvantages Simple to use Compares student performance Cannot make confident assumptions Good to graph acquisition obj. Referred to as the “Teaching design” Consists of two phases Data collected during intervention are compared to those collected during baseline Show Odom and Strain Ellis et al Usually used to monitor progress in: Reading instruction How to play 42 Washing hands


14 Reversal Designs What problems does this pose? Advantages
Used to study the effectiveness of a single intervention (independent variable) Consists of 4 phases Should not be used: When dependent variable is dangerous When dependent variable is not reversible What problems does this pose? Advantages Disadvantages Experimental control Must withdraw intervention Simple Must withdraw intervention Reversal may seem dangerous or inaapropriate Cannot be used with interventions that are not reversioble (learned behaviors) unethical

15 Reversal Designs Repeatedly compares baseline data to intervention data Dependent on the replication of baseline and intervention effects Confounding variables?

16 Changing Criterion Design
Advantages Disadvantages Functional relationship without withdrawing intervention Must be used on behaviors that require small incremental changes Progress oriented Starting with small change Evaluates the one independent variable on one dependent variable Experimental control is demonstrated by incrementally increasing or decreasing the dependent variable Consists of two phases Functional relationship is demonstrated by repeated shifts in the behaivor corresponding to changes in criteria Appropriate when ultimate goals of behavior change requires a considerable length of time to reach CALLED shaping design IMPORTANT: the minimal criteria for reinforcement to be such that student will work and con obtain SR+

17 Changing Criterion Design
Implementation Collect baseline data Determine interim criterion for performance Mean of the stable portion of baseline Half the mean of the baseline Highest or lowest baseline Professional estimate Use tolerance for delay graph

18 Changing Criterion Design
Demonstrating Functional Relationship Alter the number of sessions Continue with a sub-phase until a stable rate Vary the increase Require a change in the opposite direction

19 Multiple Baseline Designs
Analysis of 1 independent variable on more than 1 dependent variables Across behaviors Across settings Across individuals Consists of 2 phases

20 Multiple Baseline Designs
Advantages Disadvantages Establish a functional relationship (without reversing the intervention Must implement across settings, people, etc. -- cumbersome Allows the examination of one intervention on many kids Collect baseline over extended period of time Cannot be used with a behavior that calls for immediate action When behaviors are not independent Controls for learner history? DISADVANTAGES Behaviors must be independent Extended baseline is problamatic

21 Multiple Baseline Designs
Implementation Baseline is collected on all conditions at the same time Begin intervention in first condition when stable baseline is reached Begin intervention in second condition when change has occurred in the first condition When is it necessary to take baseline

22 Multiple Baseline Designs
Extended Baselines Not appropriate for some behaviors Kids may learn error response Kids may become frustrated No instruction being delivered

23 Alternating Treatments Designs
Allows the comparison of the effectiveness of more than one intervention on a single dependent variable Advantages Disadvantages Efficient for teachers Must implement a replication phase for functional relationship Multiple treatment spillover Also known as the discovery design EXAMPLES Comprehension with oral reading or silent reading Run faster with fast paced music or slow paced music

24 Alternating Treatments Designs
Implementation Each condition equal number of times Schedule of interventions should be counterbalanced (to avoid order effects) Distinctive discriminative stimulus should immediately precede the condition

25 Changing Condition Design
Implementation Interventions are introduced sequentially. Functional relationship only if a return to baseline occurs before C condition Cumulative effects Cannot compare any conditions other than those next to each other

26 Advantages Disadvantages Compare interventions No functional relationship can be established Used to study the effectiveness of two or more treatments on the behavior of a student. ABC design Cummulative effects

27 Analysis of Results Visual Inspection Mean of data points
Levels of performance Trend in performance

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