2 Viruses of Prokaryotes RNA Bacteriophages A variety of RNA viruses that infect bacteria are known. The small RNA genome of these bacterial viruses is translated directly and encodes only a few proteins.Figure 16.2a shows the genetic map of RNA bacteriophage MS2, and Figure 16.2b shows the flow of events of MS2 multiplication.
5 The small genome encodes only four proteins. These are the maturation protein (present in the mature virus particle as a single copy), coat protein, lysis protein (involved in the lysis process that results in release of mature virus particles), and a subunit of RNA replicase, the enzyme that brings about replication of the viral RNA.
6 Icosahedral Single-Stranded DNA Bacteriophages M13 and X174 are ssDNA viruses - ~25 nmThe single-stranded DNA genome (5356nt)of the virus X174 is so small that overlapping genes are required to encode all its essential proteins. This virus provided the first example of overlapping genes.
7 Because cellular DNA always replicates in the double-stranded configuration, the replication process of the single-stranded genome of X174 is of interest.On infection, the plus-sense viral DNA becomes separated from the protein coat. Entrance into the cell is accompanied by the conversion of this single-stranded DNA into a double-stranded molecule called the replicative form (RF).Figure 16.3a shows the genetic map of phage X174, and Figure 16.3b shows the flow of events during X174 replication.
8 A mRNA is read twice by ribosomes, once for A and second for A*
10 The production of progeny viral DNA involves rolling circle replication. Figure 16.4 shows the mechanism in phage X174.A cleaves the plus strand of the RF
11 Filamentous Single-Stranded DNA Bacteriophages Some single-stranded DNA viruses, such as M13, have filamentous virions (Figure 16.5) related to f1 and fd phages.These viruses are very useful tools for DNA sequencing and genetic engineering. They are released without actually killing the host.M13 is only 6 nm in diameter but 860 nm long.Filamentous phages are released without killing the host cell.All phages with protein A (including X174) do not kill host cells.
15 The late genes in T7 are transcribed by a virus-encoded RNA polymerase. The replication strategy for the T7 genome employs T7 DNA polymerase and involves terminal repeats and the formation of concatemers (Figure 16.7).
19 Mu: A Double-Stranded Transposable DNA Bacteriophage
20 Bacteriophage Mu is a temperate virus that is also a transposable element. In either the lytic or lysogenic pathway, its genome is integrated into the host chromosome by the activity of a transposase.Even in the lytic pathway, its genome is replicated as part of a larger DNA molecule. The genome is packaged into the virion in such a way that there are short sequences of host DNA at either end.
21 Figure 16. 9 illustrates replication of bacteriophage Mu Figure 16.9 illustrates replication of bacteriophage Mu. Genome – 39 kb (37.2 kb viral DNA and 1.8 kb host DNA)bp1-2 kbLambda. T4, T7, and Mu have linear dsDNA
23 Viruses of Eukaryotes Plant Viruses Most plant viruses have positive-strand RNA genomes. One example is tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), the first virus discovered (Figure 16.11).
24 The genomes of these viruses can move within the plant through intercellular connections that span the cell walls.Other types of plant viruses are also known, including the Chlorella viruses, which have very large double-stranded DNA genomes.
25 Positive-Strand RNA Viruses of Animals: Poliovirus and Coronaviruses
26 In small RNA viruses such as poliovirus, the viral RNA is translated directly, causing the production of a long polyprotein that is broken down by enzymes into the many small proteins necessary for nucleic acid multiplication and virus assembly (Figure 16.13).
31 Negative-Strand RNA Viruses of Animals: Rabies, Influenza, and Related Viruses In negative-strand viruses, the virus RNA is not the mRNA but is copied into mRNA by an enzyme present in the virion.Figure illustrates the flow of events during multiplication of a negative-strand RNA virus.
38 Double-Stranded RNA Viruses: Reoviruses Reoviruses contain segmented double-stranded RNA genomes.Like negative-strand RNA viruses, reoviruses contain an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase within the virion.
39 Replication of Double-Stranded DNA Viruses of Animals Most double-stranded DNA animal viruses, such as SV40, replicate in the nucleus. SV40 has a tiny genome and employs the strategy of overlapping genes to boost its genetic-coding potential. Some of these viruses cause cancer.
40 Figure 16.20 shows the genetic map of polyomavirus SV40. 5.2 kb
41 Figure shows the general scheme of molecular events involved in cell transformation by a polyomavirus such as SV40.
42 Herpesviruses cause a variety of disease syndromes and can maintain themselves in a latent state in the host indefinitely, initiating viral replication periodically.
43 Double-Stranded DNA Viruses: Herpesviruses Herpesviruses are large, double-stranded DNA viruses. The viral DNA circularizes and is replicated by a rolling circle mechanism.
44 Figure 16.22 illustrates the flow of events in multiplication of herpes simplex virus.
45 Double-Stranded DNA Viruses: Pox Viruses The pox viruses, unlike the other DNA viruses discussed so far, are very large viruses that replicate entirely in the cytoplasm. These viruses are responsible for several human diseases, but a vaccination campaign has eradicated the smallpox virus in the wild.
46 Double-Stranded DNA Viruses: Adenoviruses Different double-stranded DNA animal viruses have different genome replication strategies.
47 The strategy of the adenoviruses involves protein primers and a mode of replication that avoids the synthesis of a lagging strand and occurs within the nucleus (Figure 16.24).