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Geometric Data Analysis in a sociological research program The case of Bourdieus sociology Frédéric Lebaron (CURAPP CNRS-UPJV, IUF) frederic.lebaron@u-picardie.fr Symposium Apprentissage et Science des Données - SLDS 3 Avril 2009 Université Paris-Dauphine

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Introduction Bourdieu and quantification : a lifelong commitment. Bourdieu and quantification : a lifelong commitment. « I use Correspondence Analysis very much, because I think that it is essentially a relational procedure whose philosophy fully expresses what in my view constitutes social reality. It is a procedure that thinks in relations, as I try to do it with the concept of field » (Preface of the German edition of Le métier de sociologue). « I use Correspondence Analysis very much, because I think that it is essentially a relational procedure whose philosophy fully expresses what in my view constitutes social reality. It is a procedure that thinks in relations, as I try to do it with the concept of field » (Preface of the German edition of Le métier de sociologue). GDA : a conscious and systematic choice. GDA : a conscious and systematic choice. Symposium Apprentissage et Science des Données – SLDS – 3 avril 2009 – Paris Dauphine Frédéric Lebaron (CURAPP, IUF) flebaron@yahoo.fr

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Introduction 1. Bourdieu and stats 2. From Multidimensionality to Geometry 3. Investigating fields 4. Towards a sociological research program Symposium Apprentissage et Science des Données – SLDS – 3 avril 2009 – Paris Dauphine Frédéric Lebaron (CURAPP, IUF) flebaron@yahoo.fr

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1. Bourdieu and « stats » Algeria (1956-1960) : systematic use of statistical data. Algeria (1956-1960) : systematic use of statistical data. Survey research at the Centre de sociologie européenne. Survey research at the Centre de sociologie européenne. Bourdieu, structuralism and maths. Bourdieu, structuralism and maths. The shortcomings of mainstream approaches. The shortcomings of mainstream approaches. Symposium Apprentissage et Science des Données – SLDS – 3 avril 2009 – Paris Dauphine Frédéric Lebaron (CURAPP, IUF) flebaron@yahoo.fr

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1. Bourdieu and « stats » « The particular relations between a dependent variable (political opinion) and so-called independent variables such as sex, age and religion, tend to dissimulate the complete system of relations that make up the true principle of the force and form specific to the effects recorded in such and such particular correlation » (Bourdieu, 1979, p. 103). « The particular relations between a dependent variable (political opinion) and so-called independent variables such as sex, age and religion, tend to dissimulate the complete system of relations that make up the true principle of the force and form specific to the effects recorded in such and such particular correlation » (Bourdieu, 1979, p. 103). Symposium Apprentissage et Science des Données – SLDS – 3 avril 2009 – Paris Dauphine Frédéric Lebaron (CURAPP, IUF) flebaron@yahoo.fr

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2. From multidimensionality to geometry The diversity of social resources: cultural, economic, social (personal relations) and symbolic. The diversity of social resources: cultural, economic, social (personal relations) and symbolic. Provide a geometric model of the data. Provide a geometric model of the data. « Lanatomie du goût », P.Bourdieu and M. de Saint-Martin, Actes de la recherche en Sc. Soc., 1976. « Lanatomie du goût », P.Bourdieu and M. de Saint-Martin, Actes de la recherche en Sc. Soc., 1976. H.Rouanet & col., The geometric analysis of questionnaires. The Lesson of Pierre Bourdieus La distinction, Bulletin de méthodologie sociologique, 2000. H.Rouanet & col., The geometric analysis of questionnaires. The Lesson of Pierre Bourdieus La distinction, Bulletin de méthodologie sociologique, 2000.

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2. From multidimensionality to geometry Main elements of the geometric data modelling : Main elements of the geometric data modelling : Individuals X Variables tables. Individuals X Variables tables. Construction of a relevant distance by the choice of active variables. Construction of a relevant distance by the choice of active variables. The space of individuals as central tool for describing social reality. The space of individuals as central tool for describing social reality. Study of sub-clouds of individuals. Study of sub-clouds of individuals. Homology between the space of lifestyles and the space of social positions. Homology between the space of lifestyles and the space of social positions. Symposium Apprentissage et Science des Données – SLDS – 3 avril 2009 – Paris Dauphine Frédéric Lebaron (CURAPP, IUF) flebaron@yahoo.fr

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3. Investigating fields Geometric modelling of data as instrument of synthesis and representation of the fields. Geometric modelling of data as instrument of synthesis and representation of the fields. In the middle of the 1960s, formulation of the concept of « field » (first article 1966). In the middle of the 1960s, formulation of the concept of « field » (first article 1966). The « geometric data modelling » as a way to combine statistical analysis and the notion of field : « Those who know the principles of MCA will grasp the affinities between this method of mathematical analysis and the thinking in terms of field » (Bourdieu, 2001, p.70). The « geometric data modelling » as a way to combine statistical analysis and the notion of field : « Those who know the principles of MCA will grasp the affinities between this method of mathematical analysis and the thinking in terms of field » (Bourdieu, 2001, p.70). Symposium Apprentissage et Science des Données – SLDS – 3 avril 2009 – Paris Dauphine Frédéric Lebaron (CURAPP, IUF) flebaron@yahoo.fr

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3. Investigating fields From survey data to prosopographical (collective biographical) data. From survey data to prosopographical (collective biographical) data. P.Bourdieu and M. de Saint-Martin, « Le patronat », Actes de la rech. Sc. Soc. (1978). P.Bourdieu and M. de Saint-Martin, « Le patronat », Actes de la rech. Sc. Soc. (1978). Symposium Apprentissage et Science des Données – SLDS – 3 avril 2009 – Paris Dauphine Frédéric Lebaron (CURAPP, IUF) flebaron@yahoo.fr

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3. Investigating fields Multiple Correspondence Analysis. Individuals X Variables Table. Multiple Correspondence Analysis. Individuals X Variables Table. Choice of active modalities (biographical data) : Choice of active modalities (biographical data) : Demographic properties ; social and familial origin ; educational trajectory ; career ; specific positions in the field ; indicators of symbolic capital. Study of the cloud of individuals with names. Study of the cloud of individuals with names. Explanatory perspective : to understand the strategies of managers in relation to their positions in the field. Explanatory perspective : to understand the strategies of managers in relation to their positions in the field. Symposium Apprentissage et Science des Données – SLDS – 3 avril 2009 – Paris Dauphine Frédéric Lebaron (CURAPP, IUF) flebaron@yahoo.fr

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3. Investigating fields A systematic investigation of various fields: Homo Academicus (1984), field of real estate companies (1990), field of publishers (1999). A systematic investigation of various fields: Homo Academicus (1984), field of real estate companies (1990), field of publishers (1999). A collective enterprise. A collective enterprise. Ex : Hjellbrekke J., Le Roux B., Korsnes O., Lebaron F., Rosenlund L., Rouanet H., The Norwegian Field of Power Anno 2000, European Societies, 9(2), 2007, p.245-273. Symposium Apprentissage et Science des Données – SLDS – 3 avril 2009 – Paris Dauphine Frédéric Lebaron (CURAPP, IUF) flebaron@yahoo.fr

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4. A sociological research program Infer a general research program from the practice. Infer a general research program from the practice. « Une révolution conservatrice dans lédition », P.Bourdieu, Actes de la rech. Sc. Soc., 1999. « Une révolution conservatrice dans lédition », P.Bourdieu, Actes de la rech. Sc. Soc., 1999. Last use of GDA by Bourdieu (in coll. with Brigitte Le Roux and Henry Rouanet). Last use of GDA by Bourdieu (in coll. with Brigitte Le Roux and Henry Rouanet). Specific MCA. Specific MCA. Indicators of capital (symbolic capital, economic capital, specific properties) as active variables. Indicators of capital (symbolic capital, economic capital, specific properties) as active variables. Euclidean Classification. Euclidean Classification. Symposium Apprentissage et Science des Données – SLDS – 3 avril 2009 – Paris Dauphine Frédéric Lebaron (CURAPP, IUF) flebaron@yahoo.fr

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4. A sociological research program Describe the field as a constraining structure, with growing economic power positions. Describe the field as a constraining structure, with growing economic power positions. Assess the relations between positions and position-takings - strategies, editorial decisions. Assess the relations between positions and position-takings - strategies, editorial decisions. Interpret the dynamics of the field, using MCA and Euclidean Classification : concentration dynamics, forms of competition. Interpret the dynamics of the field, using MCA and Euclidean Classification : concentration dynamics, forms of competition. Symposium Apprentissage et Science des Données – SLDS – 3 avril 2009 – Paris Dauphine Frédéric Lebaron (CURAPP, IUF) flebaron@yahoo.fr

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4. A sociological research program From statistical to sociological interpretations - To show the structure of fields - To study structural homologies between fields - To assess the relative autonomy of a field - To study sub-fields inside a global structure - To explain sociological practices - To assess the importance of field effects - To study the dynamics of a field Symposium Apprentissage et Science des Données – SLDS – 3 avril 2009 – Paris Dauphine Frédéric Lebaron (CURAPP, IUF) flebaron@yahoo.fr

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Conclusion Having taken into account all the efficient agents (individuals and, through them, institutions) and all the properties – or assets – which are at the core of such efficient action, one may expect from Correspondence Analysis, which, thus used, has nothing to do with the purely descriptive analysis method questioned by those who oppose it to regression analysis, to reveal the structure of oppositions, or, which amounts to the same, the distribution structure of powers and specific interests which underlines, and explains, the strategies of agents (P. Bourdieu, Les structures sociales de léconomie, p. 128). Symposium Apprentissage et Science des Données – SLDS – 3 avril 2009 – Paris Dauphine Frédéric Lebaron (CURAPP, IUF) flebaron@yahoo.fr

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