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Fish diversity Laura (6). Species richness in vertebrates.

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Presentation on theme: "Fish diversity Laura (6). Species richness in vertebrates."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fish diversity Laura (6)

2 Species richness in vertebrates

3 Genome and biodiversity - Genome duplication and differential rediploidisation - Transposable elements - Sex chromosomes and sex determination

4 Sex determination systems in vertebrates Ezaz et al. 2006

5 Mank et al Diversity of sex determination in fish Others: - Autosomal influence - Polyfactorial - With several sex chromosomes -With several pairs of sex chromosomes …

6 Diversity of sex determination in Poeciliids

7 Sex determination systems in vertebrates: master sex-determining genes Ezaz et al medaka XY/XX dmrt1bY (Y) dmrt1 (?) (Z) DM-W (?) (W) SRY

8 Dmrt1bY, a recent master sex-determining gene from the medaka fish Oryzias latipes

9 Dmrt1bY, a recent master sex-determining gene from the medaka fish Oryzias latipes Dmrt1bY is not the universal master sex-determining gene in fish Tanaka et al. 2007

10 Sex determination evolves very rapidly in fish Possible association with the formation of new sex-determining genes and new sex chromosomes Possible role in speciation?

11 Speciation genes on sex chromosomes Qvarnström and Bailey 2009

12 Sex determination evolution and prezygotic reproductive isolation XYWZ

13 Fish models for the study of genetic sex determination

14 The genus Xiphophorus Livebearing, freshwater fish, first described 1884 by Heckel, Genus contains three groups: Northern and Southern swordtails and platyfish ~23 species described

15 Melanoma formation in Xiphophorus interspecific hybrids

16 X X Xiphophorus maculatus Xiphophorus hellerii Xmrk/Xmrk ; R+/R+ Xmrk/- ; R+/R- -/- ; R-/R- Xmrk/- ; R+/R-Xmrk/- ; R-/R-- / - ; R+/R-- /- ; R-/R-

17 The sex-determining region of the platyfish X. maculatus Tel XmrkMdlRY Cen Egfr-bSD Xmrk MdlRY SD P Egfr-b Melanoma- inducing oncogene Proto-oncogene SDEgfr-b Y X W Sex- determining locus Melanoma Macromelanophore determining locus P puberty locus Red-yellow locus WX WY XXXY YY

18 Positional cloning strategy egfrb Y Xmrk Y Y egfrb X Xmrk X X X-linked Y-linked Bacterial artificial clones (BACs)

19 Homomorphic sex chromosomes in the platyfish XYXX

20 Neither dmrt nor sox genes in the sex-determining region of the platyfish No synteny with other fish sex chromosomes Independent origin of sex-determining genes and sex chromosomes in different fish species

21 Comparative sexomics in vertebrates MammalsFish Originancient / uniquerecent / multiple Master geneunique (Sry)multiple (?) Differentiationyesrestricted Degenerationyes (Y)restricted Suppres. recombination yesyes Sex-specific gonad genesyes (Y)yes Gene duplicationsyesyes Transposable elementsyesyes

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23 Since 2007 Equipe Génomique Evolutive des Vertébrés Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon CNRS/INRA/UCBL/ENSL Astrid BöhneFrédéric Brunet Delphine Galiana-ArnouxChristina Schultheis Amandine DarrasKarim Madani Emilie DelevaLaurie Nave Domittile Chalopin Vincent Martin Jean-Nicolas Volff Until 2006 BioFuture Research Group Evolutionary Fish Genomics Biozentrum, University of Würzburg, Germany Christina SchultheisQingchun Zhou Cornelia SchmidtAgnès Dettai Anne-Marie VeithAlexander Froschauer Yvonne SelzMarina Vucic Sabine Matschl Jürgen Brandt Astrid Böhne Wolfgang Bernhardt Marc Rathmann Reinhold Hanel Ingo BraaschJean-Nicolas Volff Mariam Naciri

24 Collaborations Manfred Schartl (University of Würzburg, Germany) Sylvie Samain, Jean Weissenbach (Genoscope, Evry) Catherine Ozouf-Costaz, Agnés Dettai (Muséum Natl dHistoire Naturelle, Paris) Yann Guigen, Julien Bobe (INRA SCRIBE, Rennes) Jean-Francois Baroiller, Helena DCotta (CIRAD Montpellier) Indrajit Nanda, Michael Schmid (University of Würzburg, Germany) Stefan Chilmonczyk (INRA, Jouy en Josas, France) Carsten Hoffman, Martin Lohse (University of Würzburg, Germany) Christoph Winkler (University of Singapore)

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