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1 1999 ©UCB CS 161 Ch 7: Memory Hierarchy LECTURE 15 Instructor: L.N. Bhuyan

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Presentation on theme: "1 1999 ©UCB CS 161 Ch 7: Memory Hierarchy LECTURE 15 Instructor: L.N. Bhuyan"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 1999 ©UCB CS 161 Ch 7: Memory Hierarchy LECTURE 15 Instructor: L.N. Bhuyan

2 2 1999 ©UCB Direct-mapped Cache Contd. °The direct mapped cache is simple to design and its access time is fast (Why?) °Good for L1 (on-chip cache) °Problem: Conflict Miss, so low hit ratio Conflict Misses are misses caused by accessing different memory locations that are mapped to the same cache index In direct mapped cache, no flexibility in where memory block can be placed in cache, contributing to conflict misses

3 3 1999 ©UCB Another Extreme: Fully Associative °Fully Associative Cache (8 word block) Omit cache index; place item in any block! Compare all Cache Tags in parallel °By definition: Conflict Misses = 0 for a fully associative cache Byte Offset : Cache Data B 0 0 4 31 : Cache Tag (27 bits long) Valid : B 1B 31 : Cache Tag = = = = = :

4 4 1999 ©UCB Fully Associative Cache °Must search all tags in cache, as item can be in any cache block °Search for tag must be done by hardware in parallel (other searches too slow) °But, the necessary parallel comparator hardware is very expensive °Therefore, fully associative placement practical only for a very small cache

5 5 1999 ©UCB Compromise: N-way Set Associative Cache °N-way set associative: N cache blocks for each Cache Index Like having N direct mapped caches operating in parallel Select the one that gets a hit °Example: 2-way set associative cache Cache Index selects a “set” of 2 blocks from the cache The 2 tags in set are compared in parallel Data is selected based on the tag result (which matched the address)

6 6 1999 ©UCB Example: 2-way Set Associative Cache Cache Data Block 0 Cache Tag Valid ::: Cache Data Block 0 Cache Tag Valid ::: Cache Block Hit mux tag index offset address = =

7 7 1999 ©UCB Set Associative Cache Contd. °Direct Mapped, Fully Associative can be seen as just variations of Set Associative block placement strategy °Direct Mapped = 1-way Set Associative Cache °Fully Associative = n-way Set associativity for a cache with exactly n blocks

8 8 1999 ©UCB

9 9 Block Replacement Policy °N-way Set Associative or Fully Associative have choice where to place a block, (which block to replace) Of course, if there is an invalid block, use it °Whenever get a cache hit, record the cache block that was touched °When need to evict a cache block, choose one which hasn't been touched recently: “Least Recently Used” (LRU) Past is prologue: history suggests it is least likely of the choices to be used soon Flip side of temporal locality

10 10 1999 ©UCB Block Replacement Policy: Random °Sometimes hard to keep track of the LRU block if lots of choices °How hard for 2-way associativity? °Second Choice Policy: pick one at random and replace that block °Advantages Very simple to implement Predictable behavior No worst case behavior

11 11 1999 ©UCB What about Writes to Memory? °Suppose write data only to cache? Main memory and cache would then be inconsistent - cannot allow °Simplest Policy: The information is written to both the block in the cache and to the block in the lower-level memory (write-through) °Problem: Writes operate at speed of lower level memory!

12 12 1999 ©UCB Improving Cache Performance: Write Buffer °A Write Buffer is added between Cache and Memory Processor: writes data into cache & write buffer Controller: write buffer contents to memory °Write buffer is just a First-In First-Out queue: Typical number of entries: 4 to 10 Works fine if: Store frequency (w.r.t. time) << 1 / DRAM write cycle time Processor Cache DRAM Write Buffer

13 13 1999 ©UCB Improving Cache Performance: Write Back °Option 2: data is written only to cache block °Modified cache block is written to main memory only when it is replaced Block is unmodified (clean) or modified (dirty) °This scheme is called “Write Back” Advantage? Repeated writes to same block stay in cache Disadvantage? More complex to implement °Write Back is standard for Pentium Pro, optional for PowerPC 604

14 14 1999 ©UCB Improving Caches °In general, want to minimize Average Access Time: = Hit Time x (1 - Miss Rate) + Miss Penalty x Miss Rate (recall Hit Time << Miss Penalty) °So far, have looked at Larger Block Size Larger Cache Higher Associativity °What else to reduce miss penalty? Add a second level (L2) cache. Reduce Miss Rate

15 15 1999 ©UCB Current Memory Hierarchy Control Data- path Processor regs Secon- dary Mem- ory L2 Cache Speed(ns):0.5ns2ns6ns100ns10,000,000ns Size (MB):0.00050.051-4100-1000100,000 Cost ($/MB):--$100$30$1 $0.05 Technology:RegsSRAMSRAMDRAMDisk L1 cache Main Mem- ory

16 16 1999 ©UCB How do we calculate the miss penalty? °Access time = L1 hit time * L1 hit rate + L1 miss penalty * L1 miss rate °We simply calculate the L1 miss penalty as being the access time for the L2 cache °Access time = L1 hit time * L1 hit rate + (L2 hit time * L2 hit rate + L2 miss penalty * L2 miss rate) * L1 miss rate

17 17 1999 ©UCB Do the numbers for L2 Cache °Assumptions: L1 hit time = 1 cycle, L1 hit rate = 90% L2 hit time (also L1 miss penalty) = 4 cycles, L2 miss penalty= 100 cycles, L2 hit rate = 90% °Access time = L1 hit time * L1 hit rate + (L2 hit time * L2 hit rate + L2 miss penalty * (1 - L2 hit rate) ) * L1 miss rate = 1*0.9 + (4*0.9 + 100*0.1) *(1-0.9) = 0.9 + (13.6) * 0.1 = 2.26 clock cycles

18 18 1999 ©UCB What would it be without the L2 cache? °Assume that the L1 miss penalty would be 100 clock cycles °1 *0.9 + (100)* 0.1 °10.9 clock cycles vs. 2.26 with L2 °So gain a benefit from having the second, larger cache before main memory °Today’s L1 cache sizes: 16 KB-64 KB; L2 cache may be 512 KB to 4096 KB

19 19 1999 ©UCB An Example Q: Suppose we have a processor with a base CPI of 1.0 assuming all references hit in the primary cache and a clock rate of 500 MHz. The main memory access time is 200 ns. Suppose the miss rate per instn is 5%. What is the revised CPI? How much faster will the machine run if we put a secondary cache (with 20-ns access time) that reduces the miss rate to memory to 2%? Assume same access time for hit or miss. A: Miss penalty to main memory = 200 ns = 100 cycles. Total CPI = Base CPI + Memory-stall cycles per instn. Hence, revised CPI = 1.0 + 5% x 100 = 6.0 When an L2 with 20-ns (10 cycles) access time is put, the miss rate to memory is reduced to 2%. So, out of 5% L1 miss, L2 hit is 3% and miss is 2%. The CPI is reduced to 1.0 + 5% x (10 + 40% x 100) = 3.5. Thus, the m/c with secondary cache is faster by 6.0/3.5 = 1.7

20 20 1999 ©UCB The Three Cs in Memory Hierarchy °The cache miss consists of three classes. - Compulsory misses: Caused due to first access to the block from memory – small but fixed independent of cache size. - Capacity misses: Because the cache cannot contain all the blocks for its limited size – reduces by increasing cache size - Conflict misses: Because multiple blocks compete for the same block or set in the cache. Also called collision misses. – reduces by increasing associativity

21 21 1999 ©UCB 3Cs Absolute Miss Rate (SPEC92) Conflict

22 22 1999 ©UCB

23 23 1999 ©UCB Unified vs Split Caches Example: 16KB I&D: Inst miss rate=0.64%, Data miss rate=6.47% 32KB unified: Aggregate miss rate=1.99% °Which is better (ignore L2 cache)? Assume 33% data ops  75% accesses from instructions (1.0/1.33) hit time=1, miss time=50 Note that data hit has 1 stall for unified cache (only one port) AMAT Harvard =75%x(1+0.64%x50)+25%x(1+6.47%x50) = 2.05 AMAT Unified =75%x(1+1.99%x50)+25%x(1+1+1.99%x50)= 2.24 Proc I-Cache-1 Proc Unified Cache-1 Unified Cache-2 D-Cache-1 Proc Unified Cache-2

24 24 1999 ©UCB Static RAM (SRAM) °Six transistors in cross connected fashion Provides regular AND inverted outputs Implemented in CMOS process Single Port 6-T SRAM Cell

25 25 1999 ©UCB Dynamic Random Access Memory - DRAM °DRAM organization is similar to SRAM except that each bit of DRAM is constructed using a pass transistor and a capacitor, shown in next slide °Less number of transistors/bit gives high density, but slow discharge through capacitor. °Capacitor needs to be recharged or refreshed giving rise to high cycle time. °Uses a two-level decoder as shown later. Note that 2048 bits are accessed per row, but only one bit is used.

26 26 1999 ©UCB °SRAM cells exhibit high speed/poor density °DRAM: simple transistor/capacitor pairs in high density form Dynamic RAM Word Line Bit Line C Sense Amp......

27 27 1999 ©UCB DRAM logical organization (4 Mbit) °Square root of bits per RAS/CAS Column Decoder SenseAmps & I/O MemoryArray (2,048 x 2,048) A0…A10 … 11 D Q Word Line Storage Cell Row Decoder … Access time of DRAM = Row access time + column access time + refreshing

28 28 1999 ©UCB Main Memory Organizations Fig. 7.13 CPU Cache Bus Memory CPU Bus Memory Multiplexor Cache CPU Cache Bus Memory bank 1 Memory bank 2 Memory bank 3 Memory bank 0 one-word wide memory organization wide memory organization interleaved memory organization DRAM access time >> bus transfer time

29 29 1999 ©UCB Memory Access Time Example °Assume that it takes 1 cycle to send the address, 15 cycles for each DRAM access and 1 cycle to send a word of data. °Assuming a cache block of 4 words and one-word wide DRAM (fig. 7.13a), miss penalty = 1 + 4x15 + 4x1 = 65 cycles °With main memory and bus width of 2 words (fig. 7.13b), miss penalty = 1 + 2x15 + 2x1 = 33 cycles. For 4-word wide memory, miss penalty is 17 cycles. Expensive due to wide bus and control circuits. °With interleaved memory of 4 memory banks and same bus width (fig. 7.13c), the miss penalty = 1 + 1x15 + 4x1 = 20 cycles. The memory controller must supply consecutive addresses to different memory banks. Interleaving is universally adapted in high-performance computers.

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