 Security Chapters 14,15. The Security Environment Threats Security goals and threats.

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Security Chapters 14,15

The Security Environment Threats Security goals and threats

Basics of Cryptography Relationship between the plaintext and the ciphertext

Monoalphabetic substitution –each letter replaced by different letter Given the encryption key, –easy to find decryption key Secret-key crypto called symmetric-key crypto Secret-Key Cryptography

Public-Key Cryptography All users pick a public key/private key pair –publish the public key –private key not published Public key is the encryption key –private key is the decryption key

RSA Encryption To find a key pair e, d: 1. Choose two large prime numbers, P and Q (each greater than 10100), and form: N = P x Q Z = (P–1) x (Q–1) 2. For d choose any number that is relatively prime with Z (that is, such that d has no common factors with Z). We illustrate the computations involved using small integer values for P and Q: P = 13, Q = 17 –> N = 221, Z = 192 d = 5 3.To find e solve the equation: e x d = 1 mod Z That is, e x d is the smallest element divisible by d in the series Z+1, 2Z+1, 3Z+1,.... e x d = 1 mod 192 = 1, 193, 385,... 385 is divisible by d e = 385/5 = 77

RSA Encryption (contd.) To encrypt text using the RSA method, the plaintext is divided into equal blocks of length k bits where 2 k < N (that is, such that the numerical value of a block is always less than N; in practical applications, k is usually in the range 512 to 1024). k = 7, since 2 7 = 128 The function for encrypting a single block of plaintext M is: (N = P X Q = 13X17 = 221), e = 77, d = 5: E'(e,N,M) = M e mod N for a message M, the ciphertext is M 77 mod 221 The function for decrypting a block of encrypted text c to produce the original plaintext block is: D'(d,N,c) = c d mod N The two parameters e,N can be regarded as a key for the encryption function, and similarly d,N represent a key for the decryption function. So we can write K e = and K d =, and we get the encryption function: E(K e, M) ={M} K (the notation here indicating that the encrypted message can be decrypted only by the holder of the private key K d ) and D(K d, ={M} K ) = M. - public key, d – private key for a station

Application of RSA Lets say a person in Atlanta wants to send a message M to a person in Buffalo: Atlanta encrypts message using Buffalo’s public key B  E(M,B) Only Buffalo can read it using it private key b: E(b, E(M,B))  M In other words for any public/private key pair determined as previously shown, the encrypting function holds two properties: –E(p, E(M,P))  M –E(P, E(M,p))  M

How can you authenticate “sender”? In real life you will use signatures: we will look at concept of digital signatures next. Instead of sending just a simple message, Atlanta will send a signed message signed by Atlanta’s private key: –E(B,E(M,a)) Buffalo will first decrypt using its private key and use Atlanta’s public key to decrypt the signed message: –E(b, E(B,E(M,a))  E(M,a) –E(A,E(M,a))  M

Digital Signatures Strong digital signatures are essential requirements of a secure system. These are needed to verify that a document is: Authentic : source Not forged : not fake Non-repudiable : The signer cannot credibly deny that the document was signed by them.

Digest Functions Are functions generated to serve a signatures. Also called secure hash functions. It is message dependent. Only the Digest is encrypted using the private key.

Alice’s bank account certificate 1.Certificate type:Account number 2.Name:Alice 3.Account:6262626 4.Certifying authority:Bob’s Bank 5.Signature:{Digest(field 2 + field 3) } K bpr iv

Digital signatures with public keys

Low-cost signatures with a shared secret key

One-Way Functions Function such that given formula for f(x) –easy to evaluate y = f(x) But given y –computationally infeasible to find x

Digital Signatures Computing a signature block What the receiver gets (b)

Protection Mechanisms Protection Domains (1) Examples of three protection domains

Protection Domains (2) A protection matrix

Protection Domains (3) A protection matrix with domains as objects

Access Control Lists (1) Use of access control lists of manage file access

Access Control Lists (2) Two access control lists

Capabilities (1) Each process has a capability list

Cryptographically-protected capability Generic Rights 1.Copy capability 2.Copy object 3.Remove capability 4.Destroy object Capabilities (2) ServerObjectRightsf(Objects, Rights, Check)

Summary We studied fundamental concepts in security and protection. If you are interested in this topic you can pursue a graduate degree on this topic.

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