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Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides for Essential Biology, Second Edition & Essential.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides for Essential Biology, Second Edition & Essential."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides for Essential Biology, Second Edition & Essential Biology with Physiology Neil Campbell, Jane Reece, and Eric Simon Presentation prepared by Chris C. Romero CHAPTER 6 Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Figures 6.1 – 6.5

2 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Bacteria are used to produce yogurt, sour cream, pepperoni, and cheese Both carbon monoxide and cyanide kill by disrupting cellular respiration

3 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings All the energy in all the food you eat can be traced back to sunlight If you exercise too hard, your muscles shut down from a lack of oxygen

4 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings When you exercise BIOLOGY AND SOCIETY: FEELING THE BURN –Muscles need energy in order to perform work –Your cells use oxygen to release energy from the sugar glucose

5 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Aerobic metabolism –When enough oxygen reaches cells to support energy needs Anaerobic metabolism –When the demand for oxygen outstrips the bodys ability to deliver it

6 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Anaerobic metabolism –Without enough oxygen, muscle cells break down glucose to produce lactic acid –Lactic acid is associated with the burn associated with heavy exercise –If too much lactic acid builds up, your muscles give out

7 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Physical conditioning allows your body to adapt to increased activity –The body can increase its ability to deliver oxygen to muscles Long-distance runners wait until the final sprint to exceed their aerobic capacity Figure 6.1

8 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings ENERGY FLOW AND CHEMICAL CYCLING IN THE BIOSPHERE Fuel molecules in food represent solar energy –Energy stored in food can be traced back to the sun Animals depend on plants to convert solar energy to chemical energy –This chemical energy is in the form of sugars and other organic molecules

9 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Photosynthesis Producers and Consumers –Light energy from the sun powers a chemical process that makes organic molecules –This process occurs in the leaves of terrestrial plants

10 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Autotrophs –Self-feeders –Plants and other organisms that make all their own organic matter from inorganic nutrients Heterotrophs –Other-feeders –Humans and other animals that cannot make organic molecules from inorganic ones

11 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Producers –Biologists refer to plants and other autotrophs as the producers in an ecosystem Consumers –Heterotrophs are consumers, because they eat plants or other animals Figure 6.2

12 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The ingredients for photosynthesis are carbon dioxide and water –CO 2 is obtained from the air by a plants leaves –H 2 O is obtained from the damp soil by a plants roots Chloroplasts rearrange the atoms of these ingredients to produce sugars (glucose) and other organic molecules –Oxygen gas is a by-product of photosynthesis Chemical Cycling Between Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

13 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Both plants and animals perform cellular respiration –Cellular respiration is a chemical process that harvests energy from organic molecules –Cellular respiration occurs in mitochondria The waste products of cellular respiration, CO 2 and H 2 O, are used in photosynthesis

14 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 6.3 Sunlight energy Ecosystem Photosynthesis (in chloroplasts) Glucose Oxygen Carbon dioxide Cellular respiration (in mitochondria) Water for cellular work Heat energy

15 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cellular respiration CELLULAR RESPIRATION: AEROBIC HARVEST OF FOOD ENERGY –The main way that chemical energy is harvested from food and converted to ATP –This is an aerobic processit requires oxygen

16 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cellular respiration and breathing are closely related –Cellular respiration requires a cell to exchange gases with its surroundings –Breathing exchanges these gases between the blood and outside air The Relationship Between Cellular Respiration and Breathing

17 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 6.4 Breathing Lungs Muscle cells Cellular respiration

18 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings A common fuel molecule for cellular respiration is glucose –This is the overall equation for what happens to glucose during cellular respiration The Overall Equation for Cellular Respiration Unnumbered Figure 6.1 GlucoseOxygenCarbon dioxide WaterEnergy

19 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings During cellular respiration, hydrogen and its bonding electrons change partners –Hydrogen and its electrons go from sugar to oxygen, forming water The Role of Oxygen in Cellular Respiration

20 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Chemical reactions that transfer electrons from one substance to another are called oxidation-reduction reactions Redox Reactions –Redox reactions for short

21 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The loss of electrons during a redox reaction is called oxidation The acceptance of electrons during a redox reaction is called reduction

22 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Unnumbered Figure 6.2 [Oxygen gains electrons (and hydrogens)] Oxidation [Glucose loses electrons (and hydrogens)] GlucoseOxygenCarbon dioxide Water Reduction

23 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Why does electron transfer to oxygen release energy? –When electrons move from glucose to oxygen, it is as though they were falling –This fall of electrons releases energy during cellular respiration Figure 6.5 Release of heat energy


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