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IMS1907 Database Systems Week 5 Database Systems Architecture.

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Presentation on theme: "IMS1907 Database Systems Week 5 Database Systems Architecture."— Presentation transcript:

1 IMS1907 Database Systems Week 5 Database Systems Architecture

2 Monash University 20042 The ‘blueprints’ of the system Focus on the individual ‘building blocks’ of the system and how they are put together –hardware, software, network, database –encourages independence between components Often considers logical and physical views of the system and it’s components Match ‘user needs’ to architecture ‘Art’ vs ‘Engineering’? Systems Architecture

3 Monash University 20043 You have considered several different ‘views’ of databases –enterprise view, ER models, tables, datasheets, forms, reports, queries –different aspects of the logical and physical views A schema –a representation, model or specification of a view of a database Database systems are based on the ANSI/SPARC standard three-schema architecture Database Systems Architecture

4 Monash University 20044 The ANSI/SPARC standard for describing the structure of data (1978) consists of three schema –external schema user views –conceptual schema single, coherent definition of enterprise data –internal schema physical storage structures Three-schema Architecture

5 Monash University 20045 Three-schema Architecture External Schema Internal Schema Conceptual Schema Enterprise Data Model User View n User View 2 User View 1 DB 1 Physical Schema 1 Logical Schema 1 DB 2 DB n Physical Schema 2 Logical Schema 2 PS n LS n

6 Monash University 20046 Combination of the enterprise data model (top-down) and a collection of detailed (bottom-up) user views User view is a logical description of some portion of the database required to perform a task –guided by user requirements Represent data access and authorisation at the individual users’ level Conceptually a relation, but not actually stored in DBMS –records in a view are computed as needed External Schema

7 Monash University 20047 Detailed specification of the overall structure of organisational data Complete logical view –independent of any DBMS technology Usually depicted graphically – ER, OO modelling Schema specifications stored as metadata Scope is entire organisation or major business area Conceptual Schema

8 Monash University 20048 Includes all entity types and subtypes All relationships are documented All attributes are documented – keys specified Data types, formats, domains, and business rules ar4e specified and stored in repository Ideally data model is fully normalised –acceptable and common to normalise in the logical schema Conceptual Schema

9 Monash University 20049 Physical storage structure details Representation of the conceptual schema as it is physically stored on particular DBMS technologies A conceptual schema can have many internal schemas Consists of a logical and physical schema Good design relies on understanding of how data is accessed and used Internal Schema

10 Monash University 200410 Logical schema –representation of data for particular DBMS relational, OO, dimensional –tables, data types, formats, keys, … –derived by transforming elements of conceptual schema to DBMS structures Internal Schema

11 Monash University 200411 Physical schema –set of specifications describing how data from a logical schema are stored in a computer’s secondary memory for a specific DBMS –ideally one physical schema for each logical schema –describes organisation of physical records, file organisations, access paths to data, usage of indexes, clusters, … Internal Schema

12 Monash University 200412 The conceptual schema and external schema are typically developed iteratively until both are fully defined Logical schema is developed by transforming conceptual schema (or parts of it) to implementation model constructs Associated physical schema is specified taking into account the software, hardware and network characteristics along with users’ performance expectations Inconsistencies discovered in physical schema may require iteration back to design of conceptual schema Database System Development

13 Monash University 200413 Ability to change the schema at one level of a DB without having to change the schema at the next higher level Logical data independence –the capacity to change the conceptual schema without having to change external schema or application Physical data independence –the capacity to change the internal schema without having to change conceptual or external schema Only mappings between levels should change Data Independence

14 Monash University 200414 This means that application programs are insulated from –changes in the way the data is structured – logical changes in the way data is defined should not affect what the user sees –changes in the way the data is stored – physical changes in the data storage method should not affect what the user sees, nor the conceptual view of the data Data Independence

15 Monash University 200415 A major decision in database systems design relates to where the data is physically stored and processed Many different types of database systems in use in enterprises –need to balance organisational, technical and usage issues –data for a given IS may reside in multiple locations on many machines –different types of processing occur at different locations Database Systems Network Architecture

16 Monash University 200416 Significant factors in the growth of client/server architecture –increasing systems complexity –the proliferation of web-enabled systems Need for an application level of ‘servers’ that handle transactions from ‘client’ machines against some back-end database Data can exist on many different types of server –database server, application server, client server, web server Client/server Architecture

17 Monash University 200417 We commonly consider the following three architectural layers or tiers –Client tier –Application or Web server tier –Enterprise or Data Services server tier Sometimes this view is limited to the client tier and a general server tier Client/server Architecture

18 Monash University 200418 Client tier –sometimes called the presentation tier –desktop PCs, workstations, laptops, devices –managing user interfaces –may be some localised data –web scripting tasks may be executed –concept of a ‘thin client’ Client/server Architecture

19 Monash University 200419 Application or Web server tier –sometimes called process services tier –houses applications A/P, A/R, Orders, Sales, Inventory, … –houses web services processes HTTP protocols, scripting tasks, dynamic web pages, session management, calculations –provides data access access and connectivity to DBMS Client/server Architecture

20 Monash University 200420 Enterprise server tier –sometimes called the data services or database tier –sometimes stored on a mainframe or minicomputer –transaction databases containing all organisational data, summarised data on departmental databases –performs sophisticated calculations –manages merging of data from multiple sources –manages multiple requests for data from multiple sources Client/server Architecture

21 Monash University 200421 In a client/server architecture –DBMS software on a server (database server or database engine)performs database commands sent to it directly from client workstations or via application servers –client concentrates mainly on user interface functions –application servers concentrate on application-related processing functions –allows distribution of database across all types of user groups and one central server, as a single distributed database or as a set of physically related databases Database Systems Architecture

22 Monash University 200422 Implications for database development –ease of separation of development of database and modules that maintain it, from the IS applications that access and present database contents to users –many programming languages provide easy-to-use GUIs Powerbuilder, Java, VB.NET, … –middleware greatly facilitates application access to data across large, complex systems –opportunities for reuse of software components Database Systems Architecture

23 Monash University 200423 References Elmasri, R. and Navathe, S.B., (2000), Fundamentals of Database Systems, (3 rd edn.), Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts, USA. Hoffer, J.A., Prescott, M.B. and McFadden, F.R., (2005), Modern Database Management, (7 th edn.), Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA. Kroenke, D.M., (2004), Database Processing: Fundamentals, Design and Implementation, (9 th edn.), Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA. Ramakrishnan, R. and Gehrke, J., (2003), Database Management Systems, (3 rd edn.), McGraw-Hill, Boston, USA.

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