2 Actors and SystemsII. The Role of IdeasIII. Visualizing Theory
3 Actors and SystemsRealism and Liberalism: States and Anarchy as given problem of I.R.Constructivists are called Constructivists because they focus on how reality is ‘socially constructed’Agent-Structure Debate– Agents = Actors (State and Non-State)– Structure = Structure of International SystemQ: Does the structure of the system shape actorsbehavior, or do actors shape the structure of thesystem?
4 Theories and Agent-Structure (Neo-)Realism: Nature of the international system shapes states’ behaviorLiberalism: Behavior of actors shapes the nature of the international systemConstructivism: Actors and system mutually constituted
5 II. The Role of Ideas Ideas important in their own right Consequences v. AppropriatenessInternational Norms: shared expectations aboutappropriate behavior held by the internationalCommunityChanges in norms lead to changes in state behaviorsExamples: Sovereignty, Colonialism, Land Mine Treaty“Anarchy is what states make of it ”(Wendt)
6 The Role of Ideas IIOne of the main assumptions of a constructivist approach is that identities, norms, and culture play important roles in world politics. Identities and interests of states are not simply structurally determined, but are rather produced by interactions, institutions, norms, cultures. It is process, not structure, which determines the manner in which states interact.See Alexander Wendt, 'Anarchy is What States Make of It', International Organisation, 46/2, 1992.
7 Norms and State Behavior State Behavior and International Norms “MutuallyConstituted”ACTORS(States)•Behavior•Interests•IdentitiesCONTEXT(System)•Ideas•Meanings•Rules
8 Constructivism: Summary States and intl. system mutually constituted in IR (systemic dialectic ??)Ideas (separate from power) are important in shaping international relationsWhether IR take place in an anarchical system of states or a legally ordered society of states is a function of divergent or convergent national identities
9 Dilemma = Emphasis on Power Visualizing TheoryREALISMPowerAnarchy = SecurityDilemma = Emphasis on PowerCONSTRUCTIVISMIdeasAnarchy vs. SocietyNational IdentityInstitutionsLIBERALISMAnarchy mitigated by IGOs/INGOs/Intl. Regimes, Interdependence, Common Values, International Law etc
10 LiteraturtipSeminar CD Folder International Relations Theory Sub-folder F. FOURTH DEBATE Sub-folder A. CONSTRUCTIVISM VS. POSITIVISMSeminar CD Folder International Relations Theory Sub-folder Christmas Bonus Book Collection PDF Maja Zehfuss: Constructivism in International Relations