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© 2006 Right to Work Federal Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Austria
© 2006 “Universal and lasting peace can be established only if it is based on social justice…” Constitution of the International Labour Organisation Right to Work
© 2006 History ►18th century: French revolutionists claim the right to work to be important for the social and the psychological well-being of the individual ►19th century: Industrial Revolution, first trade unions are formed ►20th century: Crisis & Development affect the world –Industrialists call for common international standards to avoid disadvantages in trans-national trade –1929: the stock market crash leads to a major economic crisis which gives way to political catastrophes as well Right to Work
© 2006 The International Labour Organisation ►Founded in 1919 ►“Poverty is a danger to prosperity and security everywhere!” ►Became a UN specialized agency in 1946 ►Covers employers and employees as well as governments ►More than 180 conventions drafted ►1998: Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work => “social minimum” ►Yearly reports on the implementation of the principles Right to Work
© 2006 Legal Sources ►Article 4, 20, 23, 24 and 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights ►Article 8 ICCPR: prohibition of slavery ►International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural rights: –Article 6: Right to work –Article 7: Right to just and favourable conditions of Work –Article 8: Right to form and join trade unions Right to Work
© 2006 Work-related Slavery: today ►Bonded labour: to “repay” debt ►Forced labour: recruitment under threats of violence ►Child labour: fulltime work under exploitative and dangerous conditions, deprived of education and recreation crucial to the individual development ►Sexual exploitation of children ►Trafficking in human beings: mostly in connection with domestic work and prostitution ►Forced marriages: Right to Work
© 2006 State obligation ►Obligation to respect ►Obligation to protect ►Obligation to promote ►Obligation to fulfil These four levels of obligations include the prohibition of discrimination to which special attention has to be given when it comes to the access of women to work. Right to Work
© 2006 Implementation and Monitoring ►ILO Committee of Experts of the Application of Conventions and Recommendations: noted 2000 changes in labour laws since 1967 ►ILO Complaints Procedures: one for employers and employees associations and one for member states and delegates of the ILO Conference ►ICESCR – Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: considers state reports due every 5 years, no individual complaints procedure yet. Right to Work
© 2006 Good Practices ►Campaigns to end child labour such as the International Programme for the elimination of Child Labour (IPEC), operates in 87 countries ►Codes of Conduct like the Global Compact introduced by UN Sec-Gen Kofi Annan: 10 Principles in compliance with basic ILO Standards, certain rights affiliated with it. ►Labelling of items: “Fair-Trade”-products,… Right to Work
© 2006 Trends ►Decline of trade unions ►Introduction of export-processing zones which circumvent basic labour standards ►Youth unemployment ►Mobility of workers ►Influence of health on the right to work: especially HIV/AIDS forms a problem here. Right to Work
Modern-day slavery: an introduction What is it? What can be done? How can you get involved?
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