Pancreas gland. Definition The pancreas is a glandular organ that secretes digestive enzymes and hormones. In humans, the pancreas is a yellowish organ.
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Definition The pancreas is a glandular organ that secretes digestive enzymes and hormones. In humans, the pancreas is a yellowish organ and about the size of a hand
Location The pancreas is a gland located deep in the abdomen between the stomach and the spine (backbone). The liver, intestine, and other organs surround the pancreas.
Hormones of pancreas pancreas has two types of secretion : 1 – endocrine hormone. 2 – exocrine enzyme.
The Endocrine Pancreas. Approximately 5 percent of the total pancreatic mass is comprised of endocrine cells. These endocrine cells are clustered in groups within the pancreas which look like little islands of cells when examined under a microscope. This appearance led to these groups of pancreatic endocrine cells being called "Pancreatic Islets“ or “islets of langerhans”. Within pancreatic islets are cells which make specific pancreatic endocrine hormones, of which there are only a few (the most famous of course being insulin). These cells within the islets are called "Pancreatic Islet Cells".
Pancreatic Islet Cells secretion The islets are endocrine tissue containing four types of cells. In order of abundance, they are the: beta cells, which secrete insulin and amylin; beta cells, which secrete insulin and amylin; alpha cells, which secrete glucagon; alpha cells, which secrete glucagon; delta cells, which secrete somatostatin, and delta cells, which secrete somatostatin, and gamma cells, which secrete a polypeptide of unknown function gamma cells, which secrete a polypeptide of unknown function
Pancreatic Endocrine Hormones and Their Purpose A - Insulin Purpose: Regulate blood glucose (sugar) in the normal range Action: Forces many cells of the body to absorb and use glucose thereby decreasing blood sugar levels Secreted in response to: High blood glucose Secretion inhibited by: Low blood glucose Disease due to deficient action: Diabetes (large section of Endocrine Web is devoted to Diabetes). Disease due to excess action: Hypoglycemia
Pancreatic Endocrine Hormones and Their Purpose B - Glucagon Purpose: Assist insulin in regulating blood glucose (sugar) in the normal range (actions are opposite of insulin) Action: Forces many cells of the body to release (or produce) glucose (increasing blood sugar) Secreted in response to: Low blood glucose Secretion inhibited by: High blood glucose Disease due to deficient action: Some times nothing, sometimes hypoglycemia Disease due to excess action: Hyperglycemia(actions are opposite of insulin)
Pancreatic Endocrine Hormones and Their Purpose C – Somatostatin ( secreted from hypothalamus ) Purpose: Regulate the production and excretion of other endocrine tumors Action: Slows down production of insulin, glucagon, gastrin, and other endocrine tumors Secreted in response to: High levels of other endocrine hormones Secretion inhibited by: Low levels of other endocrine hormones Disease due to deficient action: Poorly defined Disease due to excess action: Diabetes (inhibits insulin production), gallstones, and dietary fat intolerance.
Pancreatic Endocrine Hormones and Their Purpose D - Gastrin Purpose: Assist in digestion within the stomach Action: Induce acid producing cells of the stomach to produce acid Secreted in response to: Food in the stomach and intestines Secretion inhibited by: Absence of food in stomach and intestines Disease due to deficient action: Poorly defined, some times no symptoms at all Disease due to excess action: Stomach ulcers due to excess stomach acid
Pancreatic Endocrine Hormones and Their Purpose E - Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) Purpose: Help control water secretion and absorption from the intestines Action: Causes intestinal sells to secrete water and salts into the intestines (inhibit absorption) Disease due to excess action: Severe watery diarrhea and salt (potassium) imbalances
types of cells Beta cell Alpha cellDelta cell Insulin------Inhibits secret glucagon ?? Glucagon ينشط افرازها من الانسولين -------- ينشط افرازها من ستوماتوستاتين Stomatosta tin يثبط افراز الانسولين يثبط افراز الجلوكاجون ---------
Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disorder characterized by many signs and symptoms. Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disorder characterized by many signs and symptoms.
Diabetes mellitus is a disorder quite distinct from the similarly-named diabetes insipidus. They both result in the production of large amounts of urine (diabetes), but in one the urine is sweet while in the other (caused by ADH deficiency) it is not. Before the days of laboratory tests, a simple taste test ("mellitus" or "insipidus") enabled the doctor to make the correct diagnosis
There are three categories of diabetes mellitus: 1 - Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) [also called "Type 1" diabetes] and 2 - Non Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM)["Type 2"] 3 - Inherited Forms of Diabetes Mellitus
Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) IDDM (also called Type 1 diabetes) is characterized by little (hypo) or no circulating insulin; most commonly appears in childhood. It results from destruction of the beta cells of the islets.
IDDM is controlled by carefully-regulated injections of insulin. (Insulin cannot be taken by mouth because, being a protein, it would be digested. However, the U.S. FDA has approved [in January 2006] an insulin inhaler that delivers insulin through the lungs and may reduce the number of daily injected doses needed.) For many years, insulin extracted from the glands of cows and pigs was used. However, pig insulin differs from human insulin by one amino acid; beef insulin by three. Although both work in humans to lower blood sugar, they are seen by the immune system as "foreign" and induce an antibody response in the patient that blunts their effect and requires higher doses
Two approaches have been taken to solve this problem: Convert pig insulin into human insulin by removing the one amino acid that distinguishes them and replacing it with the human version. This approach is expensive, so now the favored approach is to Insert the human gene for insulin into E. coli and grow recombinant human insulin in culture tanks. Insulin is not a glycoprotein so E. coli is able to manufacture a fully- functional molecule (trade name = Humulin). Yeast is also used (trade name = Novolin). Recombinant DNA technology has also made it possible to manufacture slightly-modified forms of human insulin that work faster or slower than regular human insulin.
Non Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) Many people develop diabetes mellitus without an accompanying drop in insulin levels (at least at first). In many cases, the problem appears to be a failure to express a sufficient number of glucose transporters in the plasma membrane of their skeletal muscles.
Skeletal muscle is the major "sink" for removing excess glucose from the blood (and converting it into glycogen). In NIDDM, the patient's ability to remove glucose from the blood and convert it into glycogen may be only 20% of normal. This is called insulin resistance.
NIDDM (also called Type 2 diabetes mellitus) usually strikes in adults and, particularly often, in overweight people. However, over the last few years in the U. S., the incidence of NIDDM in children has grown to the point where they now account for 20% of all newly-diagnosed cases (and, like their adult counterparts, are usually overweight).
Inherited Forms of Diabetes Mellitus Some cases of diabetes result from mutant genes inherited from one or both parents. Examples: mutations in one or both copies of the gene encoding the insulin receptor. These patients usually have extra-high levels of circulating insulin but defective receptors. The mutant receptors a mutant version of the gene encoding glucokinase, the enzyme that phosphorylates glucose in the first step of glycolysis
Pancreatitis An estimated 50,000 to 80,000 cases of acute pancreatitis occur in the United States each year. This disease occurs when the pancreas suddenly becomes inflamed and then gets better. Some patients have more than one attack but recover fully after each one. Most cases of acute pancreatitis are caused either by alcohol abuse or by gallstones. Other causes may be use of prescribed drugs, trauma or surgery to the abdomen, or abnormalities of the pancreas or intestine.
What Are the Symptoms of AP? Acute pancreatitis usually begins with pain in the upper abdomen that may last for a few days. The pain is often severe. It may be constant pain, just in the abdomen, or it may reach to the back and other areas. The pain may be sudden and intense, or it may begin as a mild pain that is aggravated by eating and slowly grows worse. The abdomen may be swollen and very tender. Other symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, fever, and an increased pulse rate. The person often feels and looks very sick.
Chronic Pancreatitis The term "chronic pancreatitis" defines the histologic, functional, and clinical results of long- standing or irreversible pancreatic injury. There are a number of things that increase a persons risk of deveolping chronic pancreatits including alcohol consumption, smoking, genetic factors and other conditions or tramatic events that injure the pancreas. Within the National Institute of Health, the National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases has been give the challange of addressing the problem of pancreatitis.
The human pancreas is an amazing organ with two main functions:  to produce pancreatic endocrine hormones (e.g., insulin & glucagon) which help regulate many aspects of our metabolism and , to produce pancreatic digestive enzymes. The human pancreas is an amazing organ with two main functions:  to produce pancreatic endocrine hormones (e.g., insulin & glucagon) which help regulate many aspects of our metabolism and , to produce pancreatic digestive enzymes.