Presentation on theme: "Lesson-10 Information System Building Blocks(2)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Lesson-10 Information System Building Blocks(2) Name six groups of stakeholders in information system development.Name three focuses for information systems.Describe four perspectives of the DATA focus for an information system.Describe four perspectives of the PROCESS focus for an information system.Describe four perspectives of the INTERFACE focus for an information system.Describe the role of a computer network as it relates to DATA, PROCESSES, and INTERFACES.
2 Perspectives or Stakeholders System owners pay for the system to be built and maintained.System users use the system to perform or support the work to be completed.System designers design the system to meet the users’ requirements.System builders construct, test, and deliver the system into operation.Systems analysts facilitate the development of information systems and computer applications by bridging the communications gap that exists between nontechnical system owners and users and technical system designers and builders.IT vendors and consultants sell hardware, software, and services to businesses for incorporation into their information systems.Conversion NotesFor this edition, we added systems analysts and IT vendors and consultants.Each of these classes of stakeholders is described in greater detail in Chapter 1.Note that we use a consistent color for these stakeholders (throughout the chapter and textbook).Teaching TipsIt is very important for students to understand that these are “roles,” not “job titles.”Any given individual can play more than one role.Any role is shared by many individuals.
3 Focuses for Information Systems Data—the raw material used to create useful information.Processes—the activities (including management) that carry out the mission of the business.Interfaces—how the system interfaces with its users and other information systems.Conversion NotesWe deleted the “geography” focus (column) from this edition. It still exists; however, the technology architecture and network for an organization is typically developed separate from the information system, and typically supports many information systems and communications needs. By eliminating this column in the fifth edition, we have simplified the framework for the students. The book still presumes that the network is a critical component for all contemporary information systems.
4 Information System Building Block Teaching NotesThis slide serves to establish the focus for the chapter. The highlighted cells are the information system building blocks that are described in detail as this chapter unfolds.
5 The DATA Focus Teaching Notes This slide visually illustrates the chapter’s discussion of the DATA focus as seen by different stakeholders.Teaching TipsIf your students have taken a database course, it can be useful to summarize that experience within the context of the DATA column.
6 The DATA Focus System owners’ perspective System users’ perspective Business knowledge is the insight that is gained from timely, accurate, and relevant information. (Recall that information is a product of raw data.)System users’ perspectiveData requirements are a representation of users’ data in terms of entities, attributes, relationships, and rules. Data requirements should be expressed in a format that is independent of the technology that can or will be used to store the data.System designers’ perspectiveDatabase schemaSystem builders’ perspectiveDatabase management systemTeaching NotesThis slide places definitions and key terms relevant to the DATA focus into the context of stakeholders.
7 The PROCESS Focus Teaching Notes This slide visually illustrates the chapter’s discussion of the PROCESS focus as seen by the different stakeholders.Teaching TipsMost students have some programming experience. Accordingly, it can be useful to summarize that experience within the context of the PROCESS column. Consider summarizing that experience by working bottom-to-top in the column to reinforce their perspective of the “application programs” they wrote.The programming instructor typically played the roles of system owners, users, and analysts when they wrote the programming assignments.The student typically played the roles of designer (e.g., flowcharts) and builder (e.g, logic).
8 The PROCESS Focus System owners’ perspective Business functions are ongoing activities that support the business. Functions can be decomposed into other subfunctions and eventually into processes that do specific tasks.A cross-functional information system supports relevant business processes from several business functions without regard to traditional organizational boundaries such as divisions, departments, centers, and offices.Teaching NotesThis slide places definitions and key terms relevant to the PROCESS focus into the context of stakeholders.Continued ...
9 The PROCESS Focus (continued) System users’ perspectivesBusiness processes are activities that respond to business events. Business processes are the “work” performed by the system.Process requirements are a representation of the users’ business processes in terms of activities, data flows, or work flow.A policy is a set of rules that govern a business process.A procedure is a step-by-step set of instructions and logic for accomplishing a business process.Teaching NotesThis slide places definitions and key terms relevant to the PROCESS focus into the context of stakeholders.
10 The PROCESS Focus (continued) System designers’ perspectivesAn application schema is a model that communicates how selected business processes are, or will be, implemented using the software and hardware.Software specifications represent the technical design of business processes to be automated or supported by computer programs to be written by system builders.System builders’ perspectivesApplication programs are language-based, machine-readable representations of what a software process is supposed to do, or how a software process is supposed to accomplish its task.Prototyping is a technique for quickly building a functioning, but incomplete model of the information system using rapid application development tools.Teaching NotesThis slide places definitions and key terms relevant to the PROCESS focus into the context of stakeholders.
11 The INTERFACE Focus Teaching Notes This slide visually illustrates the chapter’s discussion of the INTERFACE focus as seen by the different stakeholders.Teaching TipsMany students have written programs for graphical user interfaces using languages such as Access, Visual Basic and HTML. Accordingly, it can be useful to summarize that experience within the context of the INTERFACE column.While it is conceptually and practically useful to separate INTERFACE and PROCESS, it should be noted that many of today’s contemporary application development environments (ADEs) such as Visual Basic effectively integrate the technology used to construct both the user interface and the application logic. Some students find this confusing.Interestingly, the emphasis on Web-based applications is truly separating the concerns. For example, the interface elements of a Web are written in HTML while the application logic is written in C++ or Java.
12 The INTERFACE Focus System owners’ perspective System users’ perspectivesInterface requirements are a representation of the users’ inputs and outputs.System designers’ perspectiveUser dialogues describe how the user moves from window-to-window, interacting with the application programs to perform useful work.System builders’ perspectiveMiddleware is a layer of utility software that sits in between application software and systems software to transparently integrate differing technologies so that they can interoperate.Teaching NotesThis slide places definitions and key terms relevant to the INTERFACE focus into the context of stakeholders.
13 Teaching NotesThis is the capstone figure for the chapter—the complete information systems building blocks framework.Teaching TipsEmphasize that ALL building blocks are relevant to ALL information systems that the student will encounter or develop during the course of their career.Emphasize that the building blocks must be synchronized both horizontally and vertically when building information systems.Vertical synchronization ensures that each block represents fully the perspectives of the other blocks in the same column. For example, a database schema must implement the intended data requirements.Horizontal synchronization ensures that each block in a given row is consistent and complete with respect to the other blocks in that same row. For example, each table in a database schema requires application software and specifications to maintain the data stored in those tables.
14 The Role of the Network in IS A COMMUNICATIONS Focus in ISThe Role of the Network in ISConversion NotesWhile we deleted the GEOGRAPHY column that was included in our framework in the fourth edition, we did not want to ignore it. Today’s information systems are built on top of constantly evolving networks.This slide was adapted from the margin art to illustrate that the framework works equally well for network analysis and design.We acknowledge that a more complicated and well-accepted framework exists in the form of the OSI model. That is yet another reason we chosen to deemphasize this column in our fifth edition.