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Application layer (continued) Week 4 – Lecture 2.

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1 Application layer (continued) Week 4 – Lecture 2

2 Internet Architecture Transport layer – TCP, UDP Network layer - IP Data link & Physical layers – the territory of the LANs/Telcos/ISPs IETF ITU IEEE Application layer – HTTP, SMTP etc W3C

3 Variables in Internet service Bandwidth Latency – delay sensitivity Error free – loss tolerance

4 Application requirements Application Loss Tolerant Delay Sensitive Band- Width WebNoneNoMedium E-MailNoneNoLow Video streamingSome High Telephone callsSomeYesLow Video conferencingSomeYesMedium/ high

5 Characteristics Applications Video streaming Voice over IP Multicasting

6 Multicast routing

7 We have only talked about single host to single destination messages Some applications require a host to send messages to many destinations: –Upgrade of software –Streaming of an on-line lecture or movie –Stock price information to subscribers

8 Three approaches At the application level where the application establishes a separate unicast transport connection to each receiver. This is not usually efficient and not scalable Broadcast – controlled – reverse path & spanning tree An explicit multicast where the network layer makes copies of the message as close to the recipient as possible

9 How multi cast works

10 How does it address the one message to all receivers? It is not practicable to: –Attach a list of addressees to the message –The addressees may not be known Uses a broadcast and subscribe approach Subscribers are added to a D class address See Kurose for more details IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) provides services for managing the group

11 Video and audio Streaming Streaming stored video Streaming live video Real time interactive video - video conferencing Voice over IP

12 Streaming stored video Media pre-recorded and held on server Ideally server near client (remember WEB caching discussion) Important that it plays at recorded speed Uses buffering to prevent jitter – effect of delays and loss packets Because of buffering and one way (predominantly) latency not as big a problem as with live video streaming Can fast forward and rewind (not usually multicast)

13 Streaming live video Can still buffer and build in a delay Because it is live, cannot fast forward but some software will allow rewind Can be multicast or unicast Multicast overlay – uses servers scattered through the broadcast area

14 Protocols for streaming WEB http uses TCP to make the request But TCP not satisfactory for streaming Browser kicks off a media player process Web server then instructs Steaming server to send to the media player post on the browser host probably using RTP WEB Browser Media player WEB server Streaming server TCP UDP

15 Control streaming stored video Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP) The equivalent of the Remote control Allows the Media player and the Streaming server to communicate over two additional ports RTSP keeps track of the state of the streaming process including the session number and sequence number of the segment

16 Compression Video and audio must be compressed before transmission –Speech normally requires 64kbps –Stereo CD requires 1.4mbps –Video much more again Various standards (codecs) for compression –GSM for voice –MP3 for stereo music –MP1 and MP4 and others for video –H.323 for Video conferencing

17 Voice over IP Delay sensitive but large bandwidth not required Range of user facilities required to simulate facilities available in PBX

18 PSTN Gateway Public Internet Gateway Private WAN Call Manager Office 1 Office 2 Private link

19 Advantages Maintain one network instead of two One British bank estimate gives 25% cost saving Inter-office calls over own network – fixed cost Application extensions –On-line office directory –Single messaging system –Display product information –Telephony options on screen –Video conferencing

20 Risks Security – could be open to Public internet New technology QoS over IP – not totally standardised Power failure etc, not just network but phone system as well – all eggs in one basket

21 Techniques for avoiding jitter in VoIP Three problems –Variable latency –Lost packets –Packets out of order Approaches –Sequence numbers & timestamps –Fixed play out delay –Error correction Redundant data to allow reconstruction of one packet Two audio streams- normal and a back-up low resolution Interleaving

22 Video conferencing Like a phone call, delays must be less than ½ second Places real constraints – delay sensitive and needs bandwidth

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