Presentation on theme: "Lesson Two The Six-Step Process Dr. M. Connor"— Presentation transcript:
1 Lesson Two The Six-Step Process Dr. M. Connor Expository WritingLesson TwoThe Six-Step ProcessDr. M. Connor
2 The Six Step Process Planning Shaping Writing Revising Editing Proofreadingprewritingrewriting
3 Prewriting Planning and shaping are both steps in prewriting. They are important in writing a paper.During this phase you also come up with a thesis.
4 Thesis statement Also called: At first, you have a working thesis main ideathemecontrolling ideaAt first, you have a working thesis
5 DefinitionsWorking thesis: a statement that, based on everything you know of the topic, should prove to be a reasonably accurate summary of what you will write.Final thesis: the accurate one-sentence summary of your work that will appear in your final draft.
6 For week three, we will do quite a bit of work on thesis and thesis statements. They can be tricky to do well, so we’ll devote an entire week to them, and I’m sure we’ll get back to them in future lessons.
7 Planning techniques Brainstorming Clustering Hybrid of the two The W & H Questions (Reporters’ questions.
8 BrainstormingJust quickly writing down everything that comes to mind on a certain topics.It might be a good idea to set yourself a time for just writing.I will brainstorm on this topic for say, five/ten/fifteen minutes.I use a kitchen timer to time myself sometimes!
9 Clustering Example based on “rain forest”: medicine animals plants Alternatemedicinesmedicineanimalsextinctionplantsexploitationextinction
10 HybridFirst you brainstorm a while then see what works together
12 On the rainforest What- rainforest exploitation Why - overuse of raw materialsWho - natives and othersWhere - BrazilWhen - nowHow - how does this happen? Key question that will lead me to research
13 ShapingOnce you have a huge mass of materials, you need to shape them into something clear.I think of this step as making a map.Anglo-American expository writing follows a specific form.This is where outlining skills come in.
14 Parts of a paperIntroductionBodyReasonsExamplesConclusion
15 IntroductionsSmooth me into the paper, grab my interest, make me want to read more.Techniques:tell a storyuse a quoteuse a startling factThese are easier said than done, so we’ll work on them in the future.
16 Body This is the “meat” of your paper, the substance. You state your reasons, but reasons must be backed up with solid examples.I use the metaphor of a murder trial. In order to convict (convince), you need good, solid, tangible evidence.
17 ConclusionThis is more than just a summary. Though you do have a summing up of what went before.Ease me out. Let me feel, yes, the writer is done. Don’t leave me looking for the rest of the essay.Perhaps a call to action? Leave me with a thought?
18 Outlining If you’re unfamiliar with the process of outlining, visit
19 How to shape a paper--logic Some papers lend themselves to a certain structure:chronologicalspatial (inside outside, top bottom)importance - “save the best for last”people remember what they read last the most, so you want to have your most important reason last.Also, you want to build up in your paper, not start with a bang and then fizzle out!
20 Degree of outliningThe longer more complex the paper, the more detailed your outline will be.But even for short pieces of writing, it’s best if you do some brief sketch of where you’re going.Shaping also helps you see gaps in your research (if needed).Research is part of the planning/shaping stage as well.
21 WritingWhen you’ve finally got the thesis and the outline, and you’re read, then write.If possible, write the entire paper in one sitting. Or write as much as you can.Don’t go back and rewrite as you write!Get it down, then get it right!
22 When you’re done writing... After you’ve finished writing the first draft, put it away. For a class paper, a few days is optimal.Do this even with exam essays. At the very least, take time to do some stretches and deep breathing.No, your teacher won’t mind!
23 Rewriting Composed of three steps: RevisingEditingProofreadingYou may do some of the processes simultaneously, but try to break them down one-by-one as well.
24 Revising This is a form of Re-visioning, or seeing again. Look at the BIG structure:Does the logic hold?Do you need to move paragraphs around?Do you need to add anything?Have you proved your thesis?I find it’s easier to change my thesis than rewrite my paper, so that’s what I do if I haven’t proven my original thesis. But then I’m lazy!
25 EditingThis step is the paragraph by paragraph then sentence by sentence check for things liketransitionsword choicecorrect grammarclarityall of these will be the subject of a lesson in the future, so don’t worry if you’re weak right now.
26 Proofreading This is the very last step, but don’t forget it! Read your paper word by word and then read it backwards!This is an old proofreaders’ trick. It allows you to see words in isolation and better catch errors.Run spell-check!
27 Proofreading pointsIf you find yourself having to make major revisions in the proofreading stage, it means you’re messing up either the revising or the editing step.Mistakes should be easily fixed with a little Tipex/Wite-Out and a black pen!Don’t put 100% of your faith in the grammar check program.It’s simplistic.But if it offers a correction, it probably means that you are wrong.
28 ConclusionI hope this presentation gives you some understanding of what teachers will be looking for in your writing and what will be expected of you as a writer.Basically, I’ve just covered everything we’re going to learn this term! In the following weeks, we’ll go over all of this material in great detail!Doing all of these steps, and practicing the skills needed in each, can help you hone your writing skills.Writing is an art, but it’s also a craft, which means it can be learned and improved.