Using Case Studies to Teach Engineering Design and Ethics
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1 Using Case Studies to Teach Engineering Design and Ethics Larry G. Richardsand Michael E. GormanUniversity of VirginiaASEE 2004: Session 3441
2 Case Studies What are Cases? a narrative account of a situation, problem, or decisionusually derived from actual experiencereflect real-world concerns
3 And why should we use them? Case StudiesAnd why should we use them?To develop higher level thinking skillsbeyond rote learningrequire analysis, judgment, decisionsperspective taking, role playingindependent thought, critical thinking
4 And why should we use them? Case StudiesAnd why should we use them?To expose students to realistic situationsopen ended problemsmultiple possible answerskey decision pointstradeoffs involved in practice
5 Approaches to developing knowledge and skills (Shapiro) Lectures and readings“acquiring knowledge and becoming informed about techniques”Exercises and problem sets“the initial tools for exploring the applications and limitations of techniques”
6 Approaches to developing knowledge and skills (Shapiro) Case method“development of philosophies, approaches and skills”Extend the learning experience beyond the classroom and laboratory.
7 University of Virginia Cases Darden case libraryInvention and designEnvironmental designEthicsSystems engineeringIntegrated Product Development
8 Focus on EthicsMoral reasoningMental ModelsMoral Imagination
9 Mental modelsMental representations, internal images or verbal codings of experience, cognitive frameworksSet the parameters through which experience is filtered and organized“May limit us to familiar ways of thinking and acting”“inhibit consideration of alternatives”
10 Limited perspectives Standard solutions Accepted ways of doing things Compartmentalized expertiseCorporate culture
11 Moral imagination“Moral imagination involves recognizing the role, scheme, or mental model that one is adopting, disengaging from it, and evaluating alternative perspectives and courses of action.”Gorman, Mehalik, Werhane, p.2
12 Real life cases“…students need to see multiple examples of how ethical dilemmas are handled in the real world”“They also need to see the kind of detailed information available to actual decision makers.”Gorman, Mehalik, Werhane, p.1
13 Case study approach“Cases constitute a kind of virtual apprenticeship, in which students can apply ethical principles to actual situations and discuss the outcomes with each other and with a faculty mentor.”Gorman, Mehalik, Werhane, p.2
14 Some Ethical Issues in Engineering Practice Best design standardsPatent infringementProduct liabilityEnvironmental SustainabilityAppropriate technologyEngineering disasters
15 The Westinghouse Example John Kamauff (graduate student)Landel and Richards (faculty advisors)Funded by National Consortium for Technology in Business (ASEE and AACSB)
16 Westinghouse Case Introduce new philosophy Integrated product developmentMandated by managementRequired organizational changes within the companyHow to build trust among all the parties
17 Westinghouse Case Traditional functional areas MarketingManufacturingDesign EngineeringSystems design and developmentQuality assuranceDifferent roles; different perspectivesNow must work on multidisciplinary teams.
18 DesignTex, Inc Matt Mehalik (graduate student) Mike Gorman, Andrea Larson, Patricia Werhane (faculty)Based on the work of William McDonoughDesign of environmentally friendly fabrics.
19 McDonough Former Dean of Architecture at UVA Major proponent of sustainable designTwo principles:Waste equals foodCradle to cradle designEnvironmentally intelligent
20 Details of the DesignTex case Design and manufacture of textiles for commercial interiorsSteelcase office furniturePortfolio collectionRohner TextilSuppliers (dyes, materials)
21 DesignTex case Sue Lyons (VP of DesignTex) William McDonough (architect/designer)Michael Braungart (chemist)Albin Kalin (Rohner Textil)
22 Issues involved in the case SustainabilityAestheticsStandardsIndustrial ecologyProduction processesCostsTradeoffs
23 Changing jobs Mini-cases developed by B. Garrey and M. Gorman, 2002. An engineer moving from one company to anotherA group of engineers moving from one company to another.
24 Changing jobsInitial description seems to lead to a fairly clear cut decision.But as details are added, the situation becomes murkier.At the end of the discussion, Mr. Garrey gives students:Tips on how to change jobs without getting sued.Tips on working for your new employer
25 “..case method is the best pedagogy to teach design, environmental engineering, managerial, and engineering ethics”Gorman, Mehalik, Werhane (2000)
26 Books about CasesAldridge, M.D. and Swamidass, P.M. (1996) Cross-Functional Management of Technology: Cases and Readings Richard D. Irwin, Chicago.Bruner, Robert F. (2003) Socrates’ Muse: Reflections on Effective Case Discussion Leadership, McGraw-Hill/IrwinChristensen, C. R. and Hansen, A.J. (1987) Teaching and the Case Method Harvard Business School, Boston.Gorman, M. E., Mehalik, M. M., and Werhane, P. H. (2000) Ethical and Environmental Challenges to Engineering Prentice Hall
27 Articles on Engineering Cases Petroski, Henry (1991). Human Error and the Case for Case Histories in Design. Journal of Engineering Design Vol. 2, No. 1, pgsRaju, P.K. and Sankar, C.S. (1999) Teaching Real – World Issues through Case Studies. Journal of Engineering Education October Pgs 501 – 508.Richards, L.G. Gorman, M.E., Scherer, W.T. and Landel, R.D. (1995) Promoting Active Learning with Cases and Instructional Modules Journal of Engineering Education Vol. 84, No. 4, pgs
28 Resources on Engineering Ethics Harris, C.E., Pritchard, M.S., and Rabins, M.J. (1999) Engineering Ethics: Concepts and Cases Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.Lynch, W.T. (1997) “Teaching Engineering Ethics in the United States” IEEE Technology and Society Magazine, (Winter),Self, D.J. and Ellison, E.M. (1998) “Teaching Engineering Ethics: Assessment of its Effects on Moral Reasoning Skills” Journal of Engineering Education 87(1),Werhane, P. (1999) Moral Imagination and Managerial Decision-Making, New York : Oxford University Press.
29 Additional resourcesEvan, William M. and Manion, Mark (2002) Minding the Machines: Preventing Technological Disasters Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River, N.J. Chapter 8 provides “Twelve Exemplary Case Studies of Technological Disasters”, coupled with Chapter 9 these could be used as cases.Fitzgerald, Neil “Teaching with Cases” ASEE Prism, March 1995, Vol. 4, # 7, Petroski, Henry (1994) Design Paradigms: Case Histories of Error and Judgment in Engineering, Cambridge University Press.