3. To cover the syllabus How? In a meaningfully manner. Give the students time to reflect and revise. So stop teaching for the last 3 weeks and get students to reflect and revise. Reasons
4. Give the student group a sense of identity Reasons
4. Give the student group a sense of identity How? Group work is vital Reasons
5. Because it’s cost-effective - large groups Reasons
5. Because it’s cost-effective - large groups How? Instead of throwing out questions to students (as some may be intimidated) ask student to spend next 3 minutes writing down 3 most important ideas we’ve been talking about, and spend a minute comparing you’ve with your neighbour…look for 5 volunteers. Rather than getting student to asks questions; at end of class collect on slips of paper and answer at start of next class or on-line on discussion board. Reasons
7. To see how the students are doing How? Look at their faces How? Handout your slides, with first slide having questions about previous lecture - spend 5 minutes of lecture getting student to answer. Reasons
8. To change student beliefs How? By sharing your experience + Expert views + Existing Theories + Other students ideas. Make the student’s learning active, when students apply their ideas, it becomes their knowledge. Reasons
9. To help students learn How? For a few minutes ask the students to reflect on HOW they are learning. Share with others their approaches, their triumphs and disasters. How? Stop class for a few minutes and discuss their note-making techniques. How? Ask student to write down 3 things they don’t yet know about a topic and want to learn…amalgamate lists and hand to lecturer Reasons
10. To help students figure out what the lecturer is going to ask in the exam Reasons
10. To help students figure out what the lecturer is going to ask in the exam How? Students need to be more strategic about assessment, it is an intelligent response to their situation. But you just need to help them figure out your culture of assessment, not every little facet of it. Reasons
What can lecturers do? Get a notebook per course. Include attendance sheets, handouts, slides, etc. After each lecture – Note down errors in slides and handouts – Write down key points of lecture – Tricky issues – Good examples
What can lecturers do? Include questions after each lecture – What did I do best? – What should I avoid? – What surprised me? – What were the good student questions? – What couldn’t the students answer?
Zone of Proximal Development Vygotsky’s term for the range of tasks that are too difficult for the child to master alone but that can be learned with guidance and assistance of adults or more-skilled children. The lower limit of ZPD is the level of skill reached by the child working independently. The upper limit is the level of additional responsibility the child can accept with the assistance of an able instructor. Scaffolding is changing the level of support. Over the course of a teaching session, a more-skilled person adjusts the amount of guidance to fit the child’s current performance
Instructional Design Maximise the effectiveness, efficiency and appeal of instruction and other learning experiences. The process consists of determining the current state and needs of the learner, defining the end goal of instruction, and creating some "intervention" to assist in the transition. The outcome of this instruction may be directly observable and scientifically measured or completely hidden and assumed.