Internal Analysis: Identifying Strengths and Weaknesses Managers must understand –The role of resources, capabilities, and distinctive competencies in the process by which companies create value and profit –The importance of superior efficiency, innovation, quality, and responsiveness to customers –The sources of their company’s competitive advantage (strengths and weaknesses)
Distinctive Competences and Competitive Advantage Distinctive competencies –Firm-specific strengths that allow a company to gain competitive advantage by differentiating its products and/or achieving lower costs than its rivals –Arise from unique application of resources and acquisition of capabilities
The Role of Resources Resources –Capital or financial, physical, social or human, technological, and organizational factor endowments Tangible and intangible A firm-specific and difficult to imitate resource is likely to lead to distinctive competency A valuable resource that creates strong demand for a firm’s products may lead to distinctive competency
The Role of Capabilities Capabilities –A company’s skills at coordinating and using its resources Capabilities are the product of organizational structure, processes, and control systems We must add people, particularly leadership in building the structure, etc.
Strategy, Resources, Capabilities, and Competencies
A Critical Distinction If a firm has firm-specific and valuable resources, it must also have the capability to use them effectively to create distinctive competency A firm can create distinctive competency without firm-specific and valuable resources if it has unique capabilities
Competitive Advantage, Value Creation, and Profitability Profitability factors –Amount of value customers place on the company’s products –Price charged –Costs of creating the value
Differentiation and Cost Structure: Roots of Competitive Advantage
The Value Chain A company is a chain of activities for transforming inputs into outputs that customers value The transformation process is composed of primary and support activities that add value to the product
The Value Chain: Primary and Support Activities
The Generic Building Blocks of Competitive Advantage
Exercise Strategy in Action 3.2: Southwest Airlines What portions of the value chain does Southwest Airlines work on to create value for its customers? Why these portions rather than the more significant costs like fuel?
Ways to Increase ROIC Increase the company’s return on sales –Reduce cost of goods sold –Reduce spending on sales force, marketing, general, and administrative expenses –Reduce R&D spending –Increase sales revenue more than costs Increase sales revenues from invested capital –Reduce the amount of working capital –Reduce amount of fixed capital
Why Companies Fail Inertia –Companies find it difficult to change their strategies and structures Prior strategic commitments –Limit a company’s ability to imitate and cause competitive disadvantage The Icarus paradox –A company can become so specialized based on past success that it loses sight of market realities –Craftsmen, builders, pioneers, salesmen